Artichoke, also known as French lily, is a perennial herb that grows for a long period of time, up to 15 years.
The main root of growing artichokes is deeper into the soil, reaching 20 to 40 cm. Artichoke can be used not only as an ornamental plant, but also for medicinal purposes and as a food in daily life.
It is a rare and nutritious vegetable that is commonly grown in Europe and the United States.
It has a unique style and flavor, and has both medical and ornamental health care values, so it is in short supply in the international market.
Recommend you to read “The 5 unexpected benefits of artichokes“
Artichoke is a low-temperature growing sunny plant, and after low-temperature vernalization, it will pump and bloom in sunny conditions.
Artichoke has a long growing period, requires a large amount of fertilizer, and has a well-developed root system that penetrates deeper into the soil.
It has a certain ability to tolerate drought, so it should be cultivated in a soil that is deep and relatively fertile, and more convenient for drainage and irrigation.
Artichoke has environmental requirements. Artichoke prefers a climate with warm winters and cool summers, and its germination temperature is suitable for 70 °F.
The most suitable temperature for plant growth is 55°F-70°F. If the temperature is higher than 95°F or lower than 38°F, artichoke will stop growing.
Artichoke flower buds are formed at a temperature of 60°F-75°F. The flower buds are dry during development but are afraid of waterlogging and require sunlight for seedling breeding.
Artichoke seedlings can be propagated in two ways, one is by division and the other is by sowing. Artichoke is usually propagated by division because this method does not ensure the good characteristics of artichoke.
Propagation by division
Propagation by division is done by digging up adult healthy artichokes in the first half of October, cutting off the root above five leaves, and loading it into a trench about 1.5 meters deep.
Cover with soil and grass curtains to keep the temperature in the trench between 35°F and 40°F.
Cut off seedlings with less than five leaves and plant them in a seedbed in the solarium, spacing the plants in rows of about 15 x 15 cm.
Water immediately and keep the room temperature between 60°F to 70°F. Wait until next year, bring the soil pile for planting.
Sowing seedlings can be started around mid to late March with artichoke seeds, which are characterized by thick and particularly hard skin.
Therefore, before sowing, soak the seeds in warm water at 130°F for half an hour and keep stirring the seeds.
When the water temperature has dropped to room temperature, soak for another 12-16 hours and fish out, washing with water.
Wrap the seeds in a damp cotton cloth and place them at 70°F to germinate until they are white and ready for sowing.
The ground temperature in spring is usually stable above 12 degrees Celsius before planting, which should be done in late March for spring cultivation.
In autumn, planting should be done in late October. Generally, a row of artichokes should be planted at a distance of about 1 meter, with 250 to 350 plants per acre.
When planting, you should start the seedlings on the edge and water them while setting the branches, but you should not water too much, otherwise, the leaves will rot.
Appropriate application of manure and water to loosen some diluted manure water after the plant seedlings are established, during the daily breeding process.
Generally, weeding and pest control of diseases and insects should be carried out. In dry weather, watering is required, and timely drainage is required in rainy weather to avoid waterlogging and rotting of roots.
In cool weather, after October, the plant’s nutritional growth is lush, and it should be groomed so that the branches are evenly distributed, which helps to transmit light and lay a good foundation for the next year’s growth.
Before the winter, cold areas should take measures to prevent frost damage.
The main way to prevent root rot is to keep the drains in the field ditches clear.
In case of flooding, the rotten roots can be cut off with a knife and the cut surface can be filled with dry, loose soil.
Generally, if you want to control the virus, it is mainly spread by eliminating aphids, especially in dry and dry seasons, and watering in time.
Common pests are aphids, and the methods of control are different, for pests like aphids.
Before the growth period of the pest is larvae to use 90% dichlorvos for control, and spraying on cloudy days or at night for control is more effective.
When it comes to harvesting, artichoke as a vegetable, the flower buds are received in the first half of May every year.
Late June is generally the most suitable time for harvesting, and the most suitable time is one or two days before the total buds open.
Harvesting too early, the yield is too low. Immediately after harvesting, the topsoil of the roots should be dug up and isolated ten centimeters below the ground, then cover flat with soil, and then cover the cut stems and leaves on the surface to lower the ground temperature and facilitate the germination of thick old roots.
In early October, artichoke should leave the strongest branch and cut off the rest or use it for propagation. Each mu of branch seedlings can be used for planting in Lots of fields.
How to overwinter
Artichoke should be watered sufficiently at planting and several times in succession until the seedlings become established, and April to May is the period of vigorous nutritional and reproductive growth.
But it is also a period of high temperature and drought, so it is important to provide sufficient water during this period so that the artichoke does not suffer from drought.
After June, the rainy season, you should pay attention to drainage to avoid root rot, and after irrigation, you should also combine it with mid-tillage to loosen the soil for weeding.
After harvesting, the flower buds of artichoke enter the summer season and the stems and leaves on the ground wither, so it is time to clean up the dead leaves and loosen the soil.
After autumn, there will be a vigorous growth period to accumulate nutrients for re-growth, and if there is a warm winter, the above-ground parts can safely survive the cold winter.
If there is a freezing frost, the above-ground stems and leaves will wither and sprout again in the following spring.