Vinaigrette, beet soup, borscht, healing juices, and many other dishes cannot be made without their main ingredient – Beetroot. in short, my dear, you are good at cooking! You are good at all your dishes. This statement also applies to beet – one of the favorite vegetables of gardeners, which is indispensable in the daily diet.
It is believed that in the garden, the agricultural technique of beets does not require any special skills, but each variety has its own characteristics of care, the violation of which can reduce the yield and deteriorate the quality of root crops. This article will describe how to grow beets, as well as information about them, varieties, care, and harvest.
USEFUL PROPERTIES OF BEETROOT
Beets cannot be counted among the useful properties of vegetable plants, as well as the content of vitamins, trace elements and other substances beneficial to health. Beets deservedly occupy one of the first places in the food range.
All parts of Beetroot are used in food products: roots, stems, and leaves. Roots and leaves of Beetroot contain the following.
- almost all vitamins B, PP, C, and others, while the leaves still contain large amounts of vitamin A.
- Minerals including iodine, magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, copper, phosphorus, cobalt, zinc, etc.
Beets base contained in Beetroot promotes the absorption of protein almost 100% of the time, while cobalt helps to form vitamin “B12”.
Beetroot strengthens the body, improves digestion, removes heavy metals, and is used as an anti-cancer agent in the prevention and treatment of cancer. It is useful in fresh form and in all types of heat treatments (boiling, roasting, etc.). Novels could be written about the useful properties of Beetroot and its medicinal use by official and folk medicine. There is no doubt that this vegetable must be included in vegetable crops and in food rations for adults and children.
CULTIVARS OF BEETROOT
- Edible Beetroot has dark red roots of various shapes (round, elongated, cylindrical) and is used in the diet.
- In recent years, mango or multileaf Beetroot has been successfully grown, which forms a large leafy mass and an underdeveloped root crop.
- Beets have been cultivated by those who like sweet borscht, some varieties of which have a sugar content of up to 15-20%. They are also successfully used on private farms for raising livestock and poultry.
In addition to food types and varieties, there are fodder Beets, which are widely used in the diet of farm animals, especially on dairy farms. Beetroot belongs to dairy crops and is indispensable for increasing milk production. Fodder Beetroot can be used as food and is sometimes sold as table Beets. It is characterized by small roots, coarse fibers, and bad taste. Therefore, it is hardly used as food by humans.
The maturity of Beetroot is divided into three groups: early, middle and late. Early varieties have a growing period of 50-75-90 days from mass germination to technically mature harvest, mid-term 90-100 days, and late 100-130 days.
The main goal of every vegetable grower is to obtain high quality, high yields, and an aesthetically pleasing appearance. Table Beets are not devoid of these characteristics. Based on their biological and economic characteristics, Beetroot stem crop shapes are classified into the following varieties.
- Avalanche – ‘Avalanche’ is an open-pollinated, white variety with a sweet and mild flavor. A 2015 All-American Select Award winner, the creamy-white roots have all the sweetness of red Beets without a hint of bitterness. Best harvested after about 50 days when the round roots are 2 to 3 inches in diameter. The light green tops can be enjoyed as a side dish.
- Bull’s Blood – This heirloom variety was developed from the French variety ‘Crapaudine’ and was introduced in 1986. The roots mature in 55 days and the tops can be harvested after 30 days.
- Chioggia – Also known as ‘Candystripe,’ ‘Dulce di Chioggia’ or ‘Bull’s Eye,’ this striking heirloom variety takes its name from a small fishing town near Venice Italy. The crunchy vegetables can be harvested after 50 days, but it takes 60 days to pull the 3- to 4-inch lollipop-striped beauties out of the ground.
- Crosby Egyptian – “Crosby Egyptian,” sometimes listed as “Crosby’s Egyptian,” is an heirloom cultivar that originated in Germany and was planted in the 1860s. It originated in Germany and was brought to the United States in the 1860s as “Egyptian Beets.” The plants mature quickly in as little as 55 days and are known for their hardiness, making them ideal for northern gardeners who want an early fall crop.
- Cylindra – ‘Cylindra’ is an heirloom variety that is great for pickling and canning. The slender roots, smooth skin, and deep red flesh have a sweet, mild flavor with a hint of earthiness. The smooth-textured roots are six to eight inches long and an inch or two in diameter. Sometimes referred to as “butter slicers,” the uniform width is perfect for slicing. The roots mature in 60-70 days, and the tops can be harvested in just 35 days. Cylindra’ is ideal for smaller gardens because the plants take up less space.
- Detroit Dark Red – This classic heirloom variety was first introduced by the DM Ferry Seed Company in 1892 as ‘Detroit Dark Red Turnip.’ You can harvest 3-inch long roots in 60 days, but after only 35 days, the vegetables will delight your taste buds.
- Early Wonder – Also known as “Boston Crosby” and “Nuttings Gem,” “Early Wonder Early Wonder” is an early maturing heirloom variety that was first introduced to the United States in 1911. This variety is perfect for those who want an abundant harvest of vegetables and delicious roots. 2 to 3-inch roots will be ready for harvest in 50 days, and the plants are heat and cold tolerant.
- Forono – Forono cylindrical are coveted deep red Italian heirlooms that are long and slender. They have a special earthy and sweet flavor and are easy to peel. Smooth Beets are 6-8 inches long and 1.5-2 inches wide, and they are tender and juicy even when the harvest is delayed. For best germination, soak Beets seeds in warm water for 24 hours before planting. roots mature in 60 days.
- Golden – Also known as “Burpee’s Golden,” this heirloom variety was introduced by the Burpee Seed Company in 1970 – you guessed it. Golden’s two-inch golden flesh and sweet, mild flavor ripen in just 55 days. 40 days later, you can harvest tender green leaves and yellow stems.
- Golden Detroit – Sweet and mild heirloom variety ‘Golden Detroit’ produces one- to three-inch oval-shaped orange-yellow roots that are delicious raw or cooked. 55 days for root maturity and 40-45 days for leaf harvest.
- Lutz Green Leaf – ‘Lutz Green Leaf’ is also known as ‘Winterkeeper.’ You’ll be able to enjoy 6-inch crimson tubers in marinades, roasts, tossed into soups and stews – even salads. If you want them to get bigger, let them mature for a full 65 days.
- Merlin – Probably the sweetest red-root Beets, ‘Merlin’ is an F1 hybrid with high sugar content, disease resistance, and heat and cold tolerance. 3 to 4-inch perfectly round roots are ready to harvest in 55 days, and you can enjoy dark red-stemmed vegetables in 30 to 40 days.
- Moulin Rouge – ‘Moulin Rouge’ is a hybrid variety of deep purplish-red roots that you can tragically enjoy fresh or cooked at the same time. With a rich, juicy texture, the one- to two-inch glossy balls have a sweet, rich, “sweet” flavor. Young roots can be harvested after 35 days or leave in the ground for 55-60 days for mature roots.
- Red Ace – An F1 hybrid, ‘Red Ace’ is a fast-maturing Beet for all soil conditions and is hardier than other varieties. Smooth-skinned, deep purple, three-inch globes will go through the soil in as little as 50 days.
- Red Ball – Also known as ‘Burpee’s Red Ball,’ this heirloom variety has sweet, mild red flesh and deep purple smooth skin. Uniformly rounded three-inch roots are ready for harvest in 60 days.
- Ruby Queen – ‘Ruby Queen’ is an heirloom variety crowned an All-American Selections Champion in 1957. She grows happily in poor soils, and her perfectly round, two to three-inch deep crimson roots are perfect for canning, with a sweet, mild flavor and a toothsome texture. Her short tops grow to just 10 to 12 inches tall, and the roots can be harvested in just 55 days.
- Touchstone Gold – ‘Touchstone Gold’ is a popular golden hybrid with an above-average seed germination rate. Bright yellow flesh with smooth, dark orange skin is sweet and mild when eaten raw or cooked.
- White Detroit – ‘White Detroit’ has all the distinctive flavor of Red Beets, but without the dye, with creamy white, three-inch-long roots with a sweet, intense flavor. This heirloom cultivar matures in 55 days, and the roots can be harvested early for young Beets.
Knowing the characteristics of the variety will help in purchasing the right Beets variety for winter storage. Choose the earliest and best for use in fresh form (juice) and heat-treated for daily meals and winter preserves.
Increasingly, amateur gardeners complain that Beets are not sweet and have woody flesh and cannot find a reason for this variation. The reasons are poor seed quality, purchase of fodder varieties instead of edible ones, and violation of tillage practices and growing conditions. Therefore, before discussing the agronomy of Beets, let’s get familiar with its requirements for growing conditions.
CULTIVATION REQUIREMENTS OF BEETS
Beet is a heat-loving crop but quite hardy. When sowing in the open field, first establish a constant soil temperature of no less than 46-50°F (8-10°C) in a 4-6inch (10-15 cm) layer. If sown early with the return of cold weather, Beetroot may shoot out after germination and not form a quality crop. Roots will be small, have a dense woody structure, and be odorless or grassy. 39-42°F (4-6°C) ambient temperature is sufficient for seedlings to sprout. Early sprouts can withstand brief frosts as low as 28°F (-2°C), but the root ball will be small. Sow Beets slowly, or in several sowings, 7-10-15 days apart. One of these sowings will achieve optimal conditions and create the desired yield of the desired quality.
Light pattern of Beets
To obtain high quality and high yield of any crop (not only Beets), you also need to understand its biology, including its relation to the light regime. Beetroot is a typical long-day plant. Beets varieties cultivated at the level of genetic memory have fixed this biological feature, forming maximum yields with 13-16 hours of light. 2 to 3 hours of daylight variation leads mainly to the growth of above-ground parts, slowing down the development of root crops.
Remember! The shorter the maturity period of the crop, the less the Beetroot will respond to day length changes.
Older, stable Beets varieties are lighter tolerant than younger varieties and respond negatively to changes in day length. For quality yields, it is more practical to purchase modern regionalized Beets seeds that are best suited to the length of daylight in the area and do not respond well to daylight duration. In addition, breeders have developed varieties and hybrids that have little or no response to light duration. Therefore, it is best to purchase modern varieties and hybrids (F1) of Beets.
Beetroot’s attitude to moisture
Beets are capable enough to provide moisture for themselves. However, in case of insufficient rainfall, it needs irrigation. The watering rate should be moderate because, at sparse standing densities, excessive moisture can create large root crops, often with cracks.
Soil requirements for Beetroot
Beetroot is a soil plant with a neutral response. On acidified soils, yields are low, and root crops are poor. The crop prefers floodplain soils, light loams, and black soils. It is not tolerant of heavy clay, stony, high water table saline soils.
Germination takes 5 to 8 days in soils at least 50°F (10°C). In colder soils than this, germination may take 2 to 3 weeks.
Soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0 is best, and slightly alkaline (7.0+) soils can be tolerated. Beets cannot tolerate acidic soils (pH below 6.0).
Tip: For faster germination or when planting in areas with low humidity and rainfall, soak the seeds in water for 24 hours before planting.
Requirements of Beets for previous crops
The best predecessors are early harvested crops, including cucumbers, zucchini, early cabbage, early potatoes, early varieties of eggplant, and bell peppers early tomatoes. Of particular importance is the timing of harvesting precursors for winter sowing of Table Beets. The soil should be adequately prepared for sowing.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BEETS PLANTING
Selection of Beets seeds for sowing
As a plant, Beetroot has an interesting way of fruit formation. The fruit of Beets is a single-seeded nut. When the seeds mature, the fruit is fused with the flowers to form an acacia, also known as the “seed of Beetroot.” Each tuber contains two to six seeded fruits. Therefore, during germination, several separate and easily separated buds appear. When sowing, the shoots of the Beets seedlings need to be thinned out. This is usually done manually, which is very time-consuming and therefore more expensive on large professional farms.
Breeders have developed single-seeded (one-shoot) varieties of Beets. Their economic characteristics do not differ from those of the varieties that form seed cores. Their main difference is the formation of 1 fruit, which eliminates the need for thinning. Before sowing the seeds, they are ground at home with sand. During the grinding process, the groups are separated into separate seeds.
In single-seeded Beets, varieties of medium maturity and high yield. Root crops have tender and juicy flesh. They have good storability and long shelf life. Used fresh and for winter storage.
Beets seeds for sowing are easier to buy in the specialized stores of seed companies. In this case, there is no need to prepare the seeds for sowing (mixing, blocking, pelleting, etc.). When buying Beets seeds, be sure to read the recommendations on the package. Sometimes, treated seeds do not need to be pre-soaked. They are sown directly in moist soil. In other cases, the seeds germinate in a moist cloth, which speeds up the germination process.
Preparing the soil
After harvesting the forerunners, be sure to water the fall weeds and then eliminate them. If the soil is low in organic matter, spread mature humus or compost evenly at a rate of 4.4-11 Lb (2-5 kg) per 11 square feet. To neutralize acidified soils, 1.1-2.2 Lb (0.5-1 kg) of fine lime should be applied per 11 sq ft and 50-60 g of the mineral fertilizer saltpeter per 11 sq ft.
A mixture of mineral fertilizers can be prepared to replace nitrate. A mixture of ammonium sulfate, calcium superphosphate, and potassium chloride, 30, 40, and 15 g/11 sq ft, respectively, is spread on the plot and dug through about 6-8inch (15-20 cm). In the spring, loosen the soil by 3-6inch (8-15 cm), level it with a rake, and roll it gently. This is necessary to ensure an even seeding depth.
Seeding date for Beets
Once the soil is suitable, start the first round of Beets in early spring. Plant successively every 2 to 3 weeks until midsummer. Continuous planting can be done throughout the summer as long as daytime temperatures exceed 75°F (24°C).
For fall harvest, sow Beets seed from midsummer to early fall, starting 4 to 6 weeks before the first fall frost. In Zone 9 and warmer areas, winter crops are definitely possible. Plant Beets in early to late fall for winter harvest.
Techniques for sowing Beets in spring
Beets seeds can be sown in spring with dry, more practical germinated seeds. The seeds are sown in furrows on an even surface of the field. Germinated seeds are sown in moist soil. In dry soil, almost all shoots will die.
Make furrows 6-12inch (15-30 cm) apart. In heavy soils, sow seeds to a depth of 1inch (2.5 cm) and in light soils, to a depth of 2inch (5 cm). Sowing should not be deepened. The distance of one row is 0.8-1.2inch (2-3 cm), increasing to 3-4inch (8-10 cm) during thinning, which ensures obtaining a standard – 4inch (10 cm) diameter root crop. On single-seeded Beets crops, thinning is bundled with harvesting, and when sowing with coarse seeds, 2 thinning is done.
Beets planting techniques
Beets are usually grown during the short summer season, combining initial development in greenhouses and greenhouses with further development in the open field. Beetroot can be cultivated in a warm seedbed covered with 1-2 layers of cold-proof cloth. Seeds are sown in greenhouses or conservatories in prepared soil 10-12-15 days before the open field planting period. Seeds are sown in rows. To obtain more seedlings, seeds can be sown in balls. Depending on the variety, the distance between rows is 3-8inch (13-20 cm) and between rows is 12-16inch (30-40 cm). At the stage of 4-5 leaflets – about 3inch (8 cm) high – the plants are picked, leaving 1-2 plants in the nest. If the weather is not sunny, the cured plants can be planted in the ground or individually in peat soil and other containers for regrowth. When transplanting Beetroot, the central root should be handled with the utmost care. Damage to it will delay the growth of transplanted plants. When stable warm weather arrives, seedlings are planted in the open ground. Peat mulch is planted immediately in the soil along with the plants. If the pots are reusable, transplanting is done by transplanting. With this method, only a small number of small irregular (deformed) roots are produced. The following rules should be observed when transplanting.
- Beetroot seedlings no more than 3inch (8cm) high are to be transplanted permanently. The older the seedling is, the more irregular rootlets crop is produced.
- To prevent germination, Beets seedlings should not be too deep when transplanted.
- The distance between rows should be no less than 5-6inch (13-15cm), and the rows should be less shaded to 10-12-16inch (25-30-40cm).
Techniques for sowing Beets in winter
For winter sowing, the most suitable planting method is the ridge planting method. It allows the soil to warm up better in the spring, thus giving an extra-early harvest of roots and early fruits. Overwinter sowing of Beetroot is done in October-November, or more precisely when a steady cold spell comes and warm days do not return. At the top of the ridge, seeds are sown in furrows to a depth of 1-2inch (2.5-5 cm) to protect them from sudden frosts. The seeds in the furrow are covered with 0.4-0.8inch (1-2 cm) of mulch, slightly compacted, and additionally covered with 0.8-1.2inch (2-3 cm) of mulch on top to provide insulation.
Compacted Beets Seeds
If the garden area is small and you want to grow a large number of vegetable crops, you can plant Beets in a compacted bed, that is, a combination of several crops in one bed. This method works especially well in southern regions, where you can harvest 2-3 different early crops in a single compacted bed during long warm periods. Beetroot sown in spring can be combined in the same bed with carrots, onions, radishes, russets, spinach, and lettuce such as cabbage, leafy lettuce, and watercress. When early Beets are harvested in early July, the vacated area can be reseeded with onions, radishes, lettuce, and dill. After harvesting rape, peas or other crops can be sown as green manure.
CARING FOR BEETROOT
The care of edible Beetroot includes the following.
- Keeping the plot free of weeds, especially in the initial stages after emergence (before the first two pairs of leaves appear). During this period, Beetroot develops very slowly and is not weed tolerant.
- Keep the rows free of soil crusts to ensure free gas exchange.
- Apply fertilizer in time.
- Maintain the optimum moisture content of the plot.
Beetroot starts to germinate at ambient soil temperatures of 46-50°F (8-10°C) and 41-44°F (5-7°C). However, at these temperatures, seedlings emerged late and very irregularly. The optimum temperature is 66-71°F (19-22°C). Sprouts appear on days 5-8, and by days 10-12, the crop enters the forking stage. During the next 10 days, the above-ground part of the crop (the leaf unit) develops strongly, and then the root crop develops.
Loosening the soil
The first loosening should be done 4 to 5 days after germination. The thinning should be done very carefully, gradually deepening the cultivation layer from 1-2inch (2.5-5 cm) to 2.3-3inch (6-8 cm). After irrigation and rainfall, loosen the soil in the rows, in the furrows of the ridge, and on the sides of the ridge. The timely removal of juvenile weeds can be slightly damaging to Beets plants and provide optimal conditions for crop growth and development. Loosening should be stopped when the leaves close.
Thinning is done by seeding Beets into clumps. Three to five seedlings develop from the bulb. Single seeded varieties usually do not require thinning unless they are intended to be harvested in bundles. Thinning should be done on a cloudy day after prior watering. When the soil is moist, it is easier to pull out plants without damaging neighboring plants. Beets thinning should be done twice.
The first time, thinning is done when 1-2 leaves develop, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. Leave a gap of 1-2inch (2.5-5 cm) between plants. Beetroot will not tolerate more thinning. When thinning a multi-seeded crop, leave 1-2 seedlings in place. In this case, the reduction is carried out at the 2-3 leaf stage. Use the pulled plants as seedlings and plant them on the edge or sides of the taller beds.
When 4-5 leaves are grown, a second thinning is performed. At this stage, Beetroot has formed a 1-2inch (2.5-5 cm) root stubble. In the second thinning stage, the tallest and most developed plants are removed. They reach the maturity of wisps and are used as food. At the same time, the condition of the plants is checked, and any diseased or bent plants are removed. The normal root development is 2.3-3-4inch (6-8-10 cm) apart in rows.
Fertilization of Beetroot
At least two fertilizers should be applied to mid-and late-season Beets varieties during the growing season. Early Beetroot, if well fertilized in the fall, is usually not fertilized. Gardeners, especially beginners, find it difficult to calculate the correct amount of fertilizer. This crop is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determines the carcinogenicity of the crop and nitrates.
The first feeding should be done after the first thinning or rooting. Ammonium nitro phosphate can be applied at a rate of 30 g/11 sq. ft. or a mineral fertilizer mixture of sodium nitrate, calcium superphosphate, and potassium chloride at a 5-7 g/11 sq. ft. respectively.
On poor soils, it is best to use a solution of cow manure or poultry manure for the first feeding at a ratio of 1 part cow manure to 10 parts and poultry manure to 12 parts water. You can add 5 grams of urea to the solution. Apply the solution in a 1-2inch (2.5-5 cm) trench 2-4inch (5-10 cm) from the Beets row. Use one bucket of the solution per 32foot (10 m) extension. Water with a watering can close to the soil to avoid burning the leaves. After applying the solution, cover with a layer of soil, water, and cover. Fertilization with liquid organic fertilizer is done only in the early stages of Beets’s development. Later, plants accumulate nitrates in root crops because there is no time to process the mineral form into the organic form. The first sign of nitrate and nitrite accumulation in root crops when nitrogen fertilization is excessive is the appearance of voids in the root crop.
The second feeding of Beetroot is done after 15-20 days or after the second thinning of the seedlings. Calcium superphosphate and potassium magnesium oxide or potassium chloride are used at a rate of 8-10 grams (1 teaspoon) per 11 square feet. Mineral fertilizer can be substituted with wood ash at a rate of 200 grams per 11 square feet and then incorporated into a 2-2.4inch (5-8 cm) layer of soil.
Boron, copper, and molybdenum in micronutrients are best applied as a foliar liquid fertilizer spray. Mass on the ground. You can purchase a ready-made micronutrient mixture or replace it with a grass ash infusion.
At the stage of 4-5 leaves, it is good to spray Beetroot with a boric acid solution. Dissolve 2 grams of boric acid in hot water and dilute in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water. This method will protect Beetroot from heart rot. Treat the plants by diluting a ready-made micronutrient fertilizer as recommended.
If a ready-made micronutrient is not available, an infusion of wood ash can easily replace it. Infusion of wood ash can be used for 2 foliar sprays: at the 4-5 leaf stage and at the stage of active root growth (August). The infusion of 200 g per 2.5 Gal (10 l) of water should be filtered before spraying.
It is advisable to spray the plants with a potash solution about 25-30 days before harvesting Beets as this will improve their storability.
Do you want your Beets to be sweeter? Don’t forget to salt them with table salt. Dilute 40 grams (2 teaspoons) of non-iodized salt in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water and water Beetroot with a bucket of the solution for every 11 square feet of land. To reduce the amount of fertilizer applied, combine the salt solution with a micronutrient solution and spray in June and early August.
Regular watering results in a succulent root crop with fine flesh, especially in dry areas. The first watering is done at the time of mass germination. The crop is watered 3-4 times a month. During intensive growth of root crops, watering becomes more frequent. The first sign of delayed irrigation is wilting of Beets leaves. Beetroot prefers watering on the leaves. The crop does not tolerate rising soil temperatures. To prevent overheating, the soil must be constantly mulched until the leaves close together. Stop watering 3-4 weeks before harvest.
PROTECTING BEETROOT FROM PESTS AND DISEASES
The most dangerous diseases of Beetroot are fungal and bacterial damage to the root system and root crops. The disease usually affects weakened plants and mechanically damaged root systems and roots. The fight against rot diseases (Fusarium, brown rot, dry rot) is complicated because all organs of the plant – roots, petioles, and leaves – are used as food. Therefore, the use of chemical means of protection is ruled out. The struggle is carried out through agrotechnical measures and treatment with biological agents.
- Use only healthy seeds treated with bio-etching agents for planting. It is more practical to purchase treated and prepared seeds for sowing.
- Remove from the field all harvest residues, weeds, where fungi, bacteria, and other sources of disease are overwintering.
- Lime acidified soil in time to provide normal conditions for crop development.
- Continuous monitoring of the crop and removal of diseased plants from the field.
- Provide not only macronutrients but also micronutrients to protect the crop from diseases.
Among the biological agents, biopharmaceuticals are used for soil treatment to control root diseases, while phytosporins, Betaprotectin are used to control diseases in the above-ground parts of the plant.
The most common pests of Beets are leaf and root aphids, Beets flies and minnows, Beets moths, Beets fleas, etc. Biological agents against pests include Bitoxybacillin and others.
The dilution, dosage, and duration of use of biological agents can be found on the package or in the accompanying recommendations. Biological agents can be used in tank mixtures after checking for compatibility. Although they are safe, personal precautions must be taken when treating plants with biologicals. Be careful! Biological agents can cause allergic reactions (especially in powder form).
Root crops should be harvested before the onset of frost (late September to October). Start harvesting Beetroot when the leaves turn yellow. Frozen Beets do not store well, and fungal rot and other diseases can occur during storage.
After harvesting, sort the root crops and separate the perfectly healthy ones. The tracts were pruned, leaving no more than 0.4inch (1cm) of residual roots. Healthy roots were dried and stored. Storage temperature is 35-37°F (2-3°C). Various storage methods are available: boxes with sand, sawdust, dry peat, polyethylene bags, bulk, etc.
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