We are already familiar with different kinds of beans and understand the magic of this plant. Perhaps I recommend you to read “12 health benefits of beans (Advantages, Disadvantages).“
Now let’s talk about the cultivation of beans and the things that beans need during the growth process.
If you know in advance what conditions it likes to grow under, then growing beans will not cause you too much trouble.
The first thing to study is how to ensure the future “meat plants” during the growth period. Then, the beans provide nutrition to their owners.
What are the requirements for growing beans?
Like other plants, beans that are already in the germination stage need many things to germinate successfully.
The crop likes heat. If you sow too early and do not get the right amount of warmth, the beans may rot and not germinate.
Without light, there is no photosynthesis. No photosynthesis means no plants can survive.
It’s a matter of quantity. The bean likes light. It will certainly not refuse to “live” on a well-lit site, although it will tolerate penumbra out of desperation. Also, consider how the plant feels in relation to the length of the day.
Beans need a short day. Then they will set and form fruits more quickly.
And in a long (more than 12 hours) day consumes a lot of material, consumes a lot of energy and nutrients, and does not bring a good harvest.
It is possible to adjust the time of sowing to each region. Sow beans, so that by the time of flowering and fruiting, the days of light are also short. Or choose special varieties – some of them do not respond to long days.
All living things need it, but even more so if they get their nutrients from the watery liquid in the ground.
A fairly large bean that enters the soil dry must absorb a lot of water to swell and awaken.
Therefore, beans require plenty of moisture from the tender stage onward. Moisture is needed and then slowly develops mass.
Especially when the beans bloom, their grains are poured in and the beans begin to deteriorate.
Good soil is preferred even by gardeners when digging or loosening the soil. Beans also like loose, nutritious soil in a neutral or slightly alkaline environment.
All of these are most preferred by the vegetable beans to provide, and only then can you expect a good, high-quality harvest in exchange for sufficient labor.
Preparation before sowing
Beans are often grown in vegetable gardens, but the beans are planted in the ground without any preparation.
If you are lucky, there are some gains. It’s best not to hope “if”, but to prepare the beans before planting.
Gardeners have accumulated a lot of tips for this preparation.
Tips for bean seeds:
Keeping dried bean seeds in a 15° (no more than) frost freezer for two days can ensure that growers get rid of bean sprouts, the most annoying pest of beans.
When it comes to planting, the pests are in a vulnerable period, so they cannot withstand such frost.
Expose it to the sun
If the weather permits and the temperature is right, such a temperate kind is fine.
But in spring, there is rarely enough temperature to disinfect possible pathogens, even in sunny places.
Artificial heating (close to radiators, ovens) is difficult to control the temperature, cannot overheat, and cannot damage the seeds. When heating, pay attention to the biological reaction of the seeds.
Pick of seeds
it is necessary. We are not the only ones who like beans. In order to protect her from other amateurs (harmful critters), no one can guarantee our success.
In addition, there are annoying Pests inside the bean. Pests crossed the “canteen”.
In winter, they spoil the seeds and eat their contents. Therefore, during the harvesting process, all suspicious seeds must be removed.
Shrunken, flat seeds with holes or small dots should be removed. After that, it is better to burn it.
Or feed them to animals after cooking. Need heat treatment.
This effect can neutralize pests and the bean itself: until it is cooked, the seeds contain a toxic ingredient. But it will disappear after boiling.
Soak the seeds
Sometimes the bean kernels are “ground” by pests, but they inadvertently get into it, so that it is difficult to see the damage.
A warm, slightly salty solution will help. Soak the seeds in it for five minutes and you will see separation and drainage.
Heavier seeds will sink to the bottom, damaged, light seeds will float. Remove them. Rinse the rest with ordinary clean water first.
They have been partially disinfected with salt. You can use a towel to spread out and drain the liquid, and then finish drying on paper.
Disinfection with manganese solution
Wash the seeds with water (cured) and washed, not dried, but left in a weak manganese solution for another 5 minutes.
Only then remove from the water (you can use a strainer) on a cloth and then on paper. You can dry them on a sunny windowsill where you can do so.
If it is not yet time to sow the seeds, let them dry well. You can transport the seeds to the garden as soon as the raised bed, well or field trench is ready.
After germination has been sterilized and dried, seeds are often sown rather than germinated.
However, if you are in the local area name warm, the weather is established favorable, the weather is sunny and there are watering conditions that do not prevent germination.
There are different ways to germinate them.
- the old way, by placing seeds on top of a wet cloth and putting them in a plastic bag.
- The innovative way, put the beans in a sponge with wet water and put the sponge in a glass dish. Put them in a warm place. It is easy to observe them germinating through the glass.
- It is easier and safer to take a piece of foam rubber that is not too thick and rinse it in a potassium permanganate solution. Rinse and place its seeds on one half, then cover it with the second (other) half, rolling the foam rubber into two halves.
Secure it with a string or rubber band so it won’t unravel. Place in a plastic container and pour a little water in the bottom. Put the lid on and place it in a warm place.
After 24 hours, check it. Most likely, everything is ready to be sown.
If you start to germinate, remember! The seeds have been sown in the soil and should not be too dry.
Otherwise, they will die and will not breakthrough. The dry seeds trapped in the soil will “sort” the water themselves. Although if it rains at least, they need to be watered as well.
Feeding with micronutrients
This is rarely done, but the rewards are already evident during growth. In a weak solution of a mixture of ammonium nitrate oxide and boric acid – an average of 2 g of warm water per bucket – place the seeds on a cloth or in a colander, or if there are a lot of seeds, pour them directly into the bucket. Maintain – 5 minutes. Set out to dry and do not wash.
Choose a location for beans
The gardener decides where to place the beans after considering various situations:
Types of beans;
The planned crop rotation;
Availability of irrigation;
The direction of the venue;
The location of the building on the site;
The close or long distance of garden plants;
The height of standing water under the soil (groundwater);
The quality of the land-its structure, nutritional value, type;
If you want to harvest-good quality, none of the above lists can be ignored.
Each situation affects plant life in its own way. A comprehensive selection of the best conditions will give beans the opportunity to show themselves.
No matter how good the harvest is, if the principle of “seeding and forgetting” is used to grow beans, the harvest will be different. In other words: “If you are lucky.”
If you observe carefully, it will be easy to understand the effects of conditions.
Types of beans
Shrubs need to be placed separately.
It is generally low and short, and joint planting is not suitable for it. Light and nutrition may not be enough. Allocation under bush beans-individual plots.
Semi-sprouting and creeping-these beans are easy to get along with their neighbors. Corn and sunflower are their best friends, literally, they are all support.
The beans use the strong, tall stems of these crops as support and wrap around them. Space (70×70 cm or more) provided by the planting plan is conducive to the growth of the main crops (sunflower, corn) and beans themselves.
All this is enough to satisfy everyone. Sunlight, nutrition, space.
If necessary, roll beans can be placed on the pergola or pavilion. If the variety is decorative, it will decorate any conspicuous place.
Beautifully growing flower varieties can play a purely decorative role.
But it can play two roles, garnish and edible beans or millet, and irregularly mature beans.
You pick the next crop, and the other crop will mature, and there will be a wreath on the edge of the flower bush and its height. Beautiful and useful.
Planned crop rotation
Legumes in crop rotation are always welcome. Their roots are organized in such a way that nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in special root nodules.
This is a unique feature of the plant kingdom: the ability to assimilate (fix) nitrogen from the air.
And it is not important that these bacteria live on the ground. There must be air there too.
Otherwise, no plant can survive-it is soaked. Legumes have a special root air exchange. The nitrogen accumulated in the small nodules stays in it.
Roots (or root residues) decompose in the soil, and the soil itself is rich in nitrogen. In the absence of any other fertilizers, it can get any material needed for plant growth.
It is soil that fertilizes legumes. It is an excellent precursor for many crops.
Beans are the representative of this family, and also like soil-nutritious.
Crops that can effectively remove nutrients from the surface (where the roots of beans are located) are not suitable for previous crops. And there will be very little nutrition, and fungal disease (rot) may be common.
The beans themselves are not sown. Not only does it remove the same nutrients (the previous bean has already “eaten” the nutrients needed by the next bean), but it also increases the risk of pests and diseases.
The same is true for general beans. Don’t sow peas, beans, or even alfalfa.
During the hibernation phase, pathogenic microorganisms and common pests may fully hibernate on the soil and plant debris.
If the plot is small, it is more difficult to rotate crops, but earlier than three years (preferably five years), it is best not to put the beans back in place.
Root beans, good beans after potatoes. Good predecessor: pumpkin and all its families (cucumber, melon, squash, zucchini).
Cabbage is also suitable, but the fertilized soil layer will be necessary-the cabbage will be fed from the same soil horizon as the food from the beans.
However, dietary preferences vary from culture to culture. The important thing is that beans and these predecessors have almost no common pests.
Onions and carrots are also not relatives of beans, in addition, with moderate nutrients, the soil does not dry up. They are also suitable for seniors.
Eggplants, eggplants, tomatoes, peppers, and other vegetables are sown after planting eggplants.
The second season of green beans is particularly convenient for planting. After the vegetables already harvested.
In the south-after winter, carrots and sugar beets are harvested for early bundling production. The results showed that there were two harvests at the site-first for root crops and then for beans.
After the early-maturing vegetables and early cabbage, the second bean culture has also been successful.
Availability of irrigation
Bush beans do not have high requirements for water, while rolled beans have a higher greening rate and require more water.
Sometimes the growing season is suitable for the weather, so there is almost no need to water deliberately.
But it is not even necessary for years. Heavy rain will pass, the seeds in the soil will expand and the bean sprouts will hatch.
During this period, moisture is essential for new bean plants. Suddenly-drought. This is bad luck and there is no choice.
In order to preserve the bean field, it is necessary to water while maintaining moisture. Only in this way, the seedlings will appear and grow stronger.
Therefore, he should be watered or watered nearby. When the flowers bear fruit, water is also needed later.
The plot orientation is different. The direction is usually north-south.
This seems to be what you need. But traditionally, the gardener divides the plot in half and draws a ridge on it.
Then, the direction of the landing will be different: “West to East”. In order for the leaves to make better use of sunlight, it is best to arrange the rows in the first direction from north to south.
If ridges cannot be arranged like this (it is inconvenient to make many elongated ridges or plants throughout the garden), then there is a way out.
Fill the ridge as usual, then plant beans on it, without making grooves on the ridge. Intersecting with the width of the bed, short, the line will be oriented correctly.
They will absorb sunlight-as needed. It only takes 12 hours a day and no less time is needed.
The coffee beans themselves can help themselves “catch” the light. On sunny days and hot weather, plants will spread their leaves and place them horizontally.
The thin plate absorbs the most light while evaporating the most water, thereby cooling itself and preventing overheating.
At night, in the darkness and coolness, the leaves are silent: they fall. At the same time, dew flows out of them without stagnation-protection from fungi.
Location of buildings and garden plants
These factors affect in two ways. If they are not planted closely, they will shade, which can affect growth and harvest.
But at a distance, it “gets” a bit more than the shadow-it’s not bad to plant. Additional protection against wind and cold.
Deposition of groundwater
This value is an important indicator.
If the water is close to the surface, flooding will occur when it rains-this is not a place to put beans.
They can’t withstand flooding, they just die by being soaked. If so, choose a higher place.
If not, build a high ridge, especially for beans. And don’t forget to drain. Then everything will be resolved.
Beans will rot on the thick lumps of clay.
The cultivated loam is good. If it is black soil, so much better. The fertilized sandy loam is also very good.
The most important thing is the structure: the fragility, lightness, and nutritional value of the soil. Does not tolerate acidic and flooded land.
Legumes prefer neutral or almost alkaline soil solutions.
The salt marshes will not work, but usually, they will not risk destroying the garden.
In summer, residents usually do not bring soil samples to the laboratory. But it is possible to understand the status of “plant breeders” without a laboratory, and also to understand our nurses.
Weeds will help. They will silently share the information you need.
The method for determining the acidity of weeds grown on-site is as follows:
- Weeds in the field. Perhaps everyone is not familiar with this information, but the plant is external-almost chamomile.
Chamomile is often incorrectly called the belly button. The only obvious difference is the receptacle (the top of the stem formed by the calyx in which the flower is inlaid).
With chamomile it is hollow, while chamomile is conical and filamentous, it has no cavity. If there is chamomile on the field, the soil is acidic.
- Sour Perilla, mint, marsh rosemary, wheatgrass, alfalfa, horsetail, and plantain are also sour-loving.
- But where the loosest stems are distributed, the soil is alkaline.
- Quilts, shepherd’s purse, and mock grass may tell the gardener that it is lucky because the soil is close to neutral and many vegetables like it, not only beans.
If the soil is “not very good”, it is worth analyzing, what is the problem with it, suitable for the growth of beans. More can be corrected: acid soil-lime will help.
It’s not easy yet-improve the effect by adding organics, sand, or even sawdust.
There are also parts that seem to be pieced together: where the plot is better, and where it is worse.
Plantain prefers certain places and traditionally uses tweed to settle.
In such a garden, you only need to choose the “parts” suitable for beans, and then prepare for planting crops.
Every crop is sown or planted in the soil specially prepared for it.
Then it will respond to its care with good growth.
Only by preparing the soil in advance can you get a decent harvest of beans.
- In autumn, the soil is cultivated.
- According to the soil quality, apply an appropriate amount of organic matter (mature compost, high-quality decomposed manure) to dig down. Organic fertilizer is rich in nitrogen and other substances. Beans do not need a large amount of it and can extract this mineral directly from the air.
- Acidic soil–lime.
- Pay more attention to the structure and ensure the fragility of the plot. And add sand when necessary.
- In the future, the place of the seedbed is marked. There must be no standing water.
- In spring, the soil is leveled with a rake. Previously, sieved ash could be spread on the surface-additional fertilizer.
- Form ridges before planting-if necessary. Or ditch sowing.
- Fill holes according to the plan selected by the specific species.
Sowing of beans
When sowing seeds, take into account the heat-loving nature of beans. Of course, it can swell and wake up already +10 °.
In the soil, next to the seeds to be so. But in terms of the heat of breeding, it is still far from optimal conditions.
At low temperatures, the weather usually remains unstable and can suddenly become cold. This turn to cold will not only prevent growth – usually, even at the roots does not destroy the beans, but only the beans that are about to germinate.
Germinated beans are particularly sensitive to lack of heat. If you germinate – only sow seeds at optimal temperatures that fall in the way.
In the South, this is easy: chestnuts bloom, which means that the soil is ready to sow beans. Its temperature in the planting layer is higher than 10 °. The indicator is correct, the chestnuts will not get it wrong.
In the north, when the temperature is suitable for sowing beans, you need to check carefully the state of your native plants.
Each region has its own characteristics. If the forecaster reports: the average daily temperature in the area is 15 degrees or higher, you can start planting beans.
If you can cover the seedlings with a temporary film frame, that’s great. Even in the south, frosts are unpredictable (they occasionally occur in June), and beans cannot withstand such weather.
April-May is the month to sow beans, adjusting the quantity only to the terrain.
How to sow
There are two ways to sow beans:
The first option is dry sowing-if you are not confident in the irreversibility of cold weather, you can soak overnight before sowing.
The second option is that when the heating is established, the rainy season will come down to keep the soil moist (watering).
There is the more-the desire of the grower plays a role in the choice: whether to soak.
- The bean seeds are not small, so don’t plant them superficially. Otherwise, they can sprout, but it is impossible to stay firmly in the ground.
Wind and rain can easily damage shallow-grown beans. Traditionally, the seeding depth is a matchbox-5 cm.
- Choose a planting plan based on the possibility of the plot. The minimum value of shrub morphology is 30×40 cm (line spacing and line spacing).
There is an opportunity to give more breeding area-give it, not bad. If the beans are planted, the order of decorative wells should be staggered.
This can provide better light and nutrition. Put two to three seeds in the hole. This is insurance. When they appear and merge, then they become thinner.
If everything is fine, you can leave two plants (just don’t plant them side by side, spread them over the holes). The third plant can be transplanted as carefully as a seedling. Or transplant two and leave one in the hole.
When there are many seeds, you can sow five at a time. Especially crawling-with it, in a hole in the trellis, you can make the branches of two plants at the same time in different directions.
- If the humidity is low, dry seeds can be planted in moist soil without watering.
When the humidity is high or when the seeds are sowed with watered/germinated seeds, cover the hole with soil, lightly press the seeds, and water them.
It can be pressed with a hoe or even by hand. Put a little dry soil on it-to prevent scabs.
- Plants in the climbing form are more powerful, they are planted in the same shrub form with rows between half a meter, the distance-30 cm. Prepare the high (two meters) bracket in advance.
Beans can easily circumvent anything, but woody ones are best. They will not glow in the sun like metals or polymers.
Although wood is inferior to them in durability. But the stems of legumes are very sparse.
- If there are more corn or sunflowers on the plot, climbing beans can be planted in a hole with them. Unexpectedly, there is more environmentally friendly support than this.
These crops are friendly and are often grown together. The planting is more compact, the harvest is doubled (seeds, beans), and the benefits are obvious. And the operability is lower-no high pole is required.
Weeding and loosening the soil
Keep plots weed-free until bean sprouts sprout.
Weeds germinate quickly, watch out – it is worth. It is good to regularly loosen the surface layer: already there will be lines – stems (stalks) of weeds.
Prune them conveniently – with a flat blade. Convenient, fast, and reliable. At the same time and the soil surface is broken and moisture is stored.
If it rains, the soil surface must be loosened. The same applies after irrigation.
Moisture soon escapes from cracks in the surface crust, even from deeper layers.
Therefore, it is not worthwhile to loosen it too late.
That’s it. It closes a channel through which moisture can escape.
Processing with plowshare in the well cannot be held before budding. The probability of damage to the seedlings is high.
And to conserve moisture, there is no need for weeds there. There is a solution: mulch the holes immediately after sowing – with sand.
The crust under it will not form. While the weeds are still weak, they will go up more slowly.
The bean grain has powerful sprouts. Sand at least will not bother him. If the layer is of course very thin.
After a week and a half, the plant seedlings will surface.
This allows to remove weeds side by side – even manually with a flat cutter: the tool is operable.
Cultivating the soil
Bean sprouts will develop better and stay stronger if they are lightly mounded after giving them a bit of growth (up to fifteen centimeters).
This will protect the roots from overheating in hot climates.
When the beans start to solidify, a second, more intense heaving will take place.
This is not only support but also increases the future harvest. The reception also strengthens the shrub’s resistance to disease.
This technique is optional. When – the weather and soil conditions, as well as the plant, will tell you.
Until it gets hot, the leaves won’t stick and the soil won’t dry out – no more watering is needed.
If there is crusting, or if there is heat coming in, pour it in. You will have to keep a balance on watering: beans love the taste of gold.
If there is not enough water supply and vice versa, soak the soil, the beans discolor and the ovaries fall off.
By watering your plants in the morning, you can provide them with moisture during the sweltering afternoons (which are crucial for plants) and late afternoons.
At night, the heat dissipates and the moisture in the air returns to the ground with the dew. Then it is “pulled up” to the top at ground level.
Those who like to experiment can shoot two plots (or two halves of the garden) and water them differently.
Traditionally, one is at night and the other is in the morning. Then compare the results and choose the method you prefer.
Beans respond to sprinkling and are more physiological than regular watering.
This technique is also related to watering. Due to lack of water, plants bloom earlier. Urgency
The urgency to give offspring. Humans have learned to use it.
The bean grows a few well-structured leaves – strong and powerful stems and leaves that can stop being watered. Give her an “artificial drought”. Watch
Flowering has begun – it’s time to resume watering. First, start watering little by little as the mass increases, and the intensity of flowering increases.
If the variety is curled, plant the beans on supports or in a grid along the dividing border.
The beans “tie” themselves to the grid – weaving the cells together like a green hedge. You do not need to tie them there.
If you provide her with a two-meter pole, you must support a strong vine.
It is easier to connect the supports in several successive layers using strong ropes. Stretch it horizontally and secure it to each support.
This will prove to be a lattice. The beans have more than one stem; they must be regularly and evenly distributed on this grid.
Thus, care is easier and the leaves make maximum use of sunlight.
In order for the beans to branch well and send out new shoots, therefore – to increase production – they should be pruned regularly.
Throw a strong and full bunch of brushes, which at maturity can reach one and a half – two meters – the tips should be carefully pruned.
This is done during the growing season – if needed. However, thorough attention should be paid to pruning in August.
All branches over two meters long should be pruned.
This will allow the ears and grains to fully mature before the end of the growing season.
Bush beans rarely have to be pruned unless they have matured and are starting to grow flowered shoots in late summer.
In properly prepared soil, pre-filled with the necessary substances, the beans will grow normally even without additional fertilization.
However, if you want: bigger grains and strong vines, then feeding will not hurt. Nitrogen cannot be used. Beans will find their own nitrogen, they do not need additional nitrogen.
But you can water and apply phosphorus fertilizer before watering the flowers.
At the time of flowering of beans, for the better and bigger setting of buds is a good application of potassium fertilizer. Also – with irrigation water. This will be enough.
This seems to be a simple science, but when you know how to grow beans in order to get a good return, it is more interesting to cooperate with culture.
Bean is a strategic culture.
Summarized my internal strategy: reserve useful products for my family, and implement them, no gardener will fail
We have already harvested a good harvest of soybeans, so in the next article on this topic, we will discuss beans related content.
Dear friends, this article ends here, see you next time!