Chinese cabbage (Brassica pekinensis (Lour.) Rupr.) is a cruciferous biennial herb of the Brassica genus, which can reach 60 cm in height. The whole plant is glabrous, with many basal leaves and a large shape;
Obovate-oblong to broadly obovate, apex rounded and obtuse, margin shrunken, wavy, petiole white, flat, flowers bright yellow, sepals oblong or ovate-lanceolate, erect, light green to yellow;
The petals are obovate, the fruit stalks are spreading or ascending, and the seeds are spherical and brown. Flower in May and fruit in June.
Cabbage is rich in nutrients, and the leaves can be used for stir-frying, raw food, salting, and soy sauce. The leaves that fall off the outer layer can still be used as feed and have certain medicinal value.
Morphological characteristics of Chinese cabbage
Chinese cabbage is a biennial herb, 40-60 cm high. The whole plant is a slightly white powder, glabrous, and sometimes there are a few bristles on the midrib under the leaf.
The leaves of Chinese cabbage are relatively large, obovate-oblong to obovate, 30-60 cm long, rounded at the top, crimped and wavy at the edge, sometimes with indistinct teeth, white midrib, and very wide;
There are many thick lateral veins, petioles are white, flat, 5-9 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, and broad and thin wings with notches on the edges;
The upper cauline leaves are oblong-ovate, oblong-lanceolate to long-lanceolate, 2.5-7 cm long, the apex is rounded and blunt to short and sharp, whole or with cracked teeth, stalked or holding the stem, ear-shaped, with Powder cream.
Flowers are bright yellow, 1.2-1.5 cm in diameter; pedicel is 4-6 mm long; sepals are oblong or ovate-lanceolate, 4-5 mm long, erect, light green to yellow;
The petals are obovate, 7-8 mm long, and the base gradually narrows into claws. The siliques are thicker and shorter, 3-6 cm long, 3 mm wide, flattened on both sides, erect, bill 4-10 mm long, 1 mm wide, and rounded at the top;
The fruit stalks develop or rise, 2.5-3 cm long and thick. The seeds are spherical, 1-1.5 mm in diameter, brown. Flowering in May, fruiting in June.
The growing environment of Chinese cabbage
Chinese cabbage was originally distributed in North China and is widely cultivated throughout China. Chinese cabbage is relatively hardy and prefers cold weather, so it is suitable for growing in cold seasons. If it is cultivated in the high-temperature season, it is prone to diseases and insects, or the quality is low, and the yield is low, so it is not suitable for cultivation in summer.
It is very resistant to low temperatures. After the temperature reaches -3°C, growth can be restored if the temperature rises gradually, but if the temperature continues to drop to about -11°C after reaching -8°C, normal growth cannot be resumed and frost damage will occur.
Chinese cabbage is suitable for planting in loam, sandy loam, and black loam that retain fertilizer, water, and organic matter. It is not suitable for planting on sandy soil that is prone to leaking water and manure, and it is not suitable for planting on clay with poor drainage.
The nutritional value of Chinese cabbage
Chinese cabbage contains protein, fat, multiple vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals, as well as a lot of crude fiber. It can be used for stewing, frying, simmering, mixing, and making fillings and side dishes.
In particular, Chinese cabbage contains more vitamins and is eaten with meat. It can not only increase the deliciousness of meat, but also reduce the nitrate and nitrite substances in the meat, and reduce the production of carcinogenic nitrite amines.
1. Crude fiber
Chinese cabbage is rich in crude fiber, which can not only moisturize the intestines, promote detoxification, but also stimulate gastrointestinal peristalsis, promote stool excretion, and help digestion. The prevention of colorectal cancer has a good effect.
The air is particularly dry in autumn and winter, and the cold wind is extremely harmful to human skin. Chinese cabbage is rich in vitamin C and vitamin E. Eating more Chinese cabbage can have good skincare and beauty effect.
Scientists at the Hormonal Institute in New York found that the incidence of breast cancer among Chinese and Japanese women is much lower than that of Western women because they often eat cabbage. There are some trace elements in cabbage, which can help break down estrogen that is linked to breast cancer. Women who eat 450 grams of Chinese cabbage every day can absorb 500 mg of this compound, thereby increasing the number of important enzymes in the body, which can help break down estrogen.
4. Copper element
It is rich in copper. Copper is an indispensable micronutrient for human health. It has an important influence on the development and function of blood, central nervous system and immune system, hair, skin and bone tissue, brain, liver, heart, and other internal organs.
A cup of cooked Chinese cabbage juice can provide almost as much calcium as a cup of milk. So people who rarely use dairy products can get more calcium by eating enough Chinese cabbage.
The pectin contained in Chinese cabbage can help the body to eliminate excess cholesterol.
Chinese cabbage also contains a small amount of molybdenum, which can inhibit the formation and absorption of nitrite in the human body and play a certain anti-cancer effect.
8. Other substances
Chinese cabbage is also rich in iron, potassium, and vitamin A.
The calories of Chinese cabbage
The total calories of Chinese cabbage are 35 calories, and the intake of 35 calories is equivalent to doing the following exercises:
Walk: 9 minutes
Running: 4 minutes
Jump rope: 3 minutes
Aerobics: 7 minutes
The water content of Chinese cabbage is about 95% and the calories are very low. Cabbage itself contains very little heat, so it will not cause heat storage.
Chinese cabbage also contains very little sodium, which does not allow the body to store excess water and can reduce the burden on the heart.
Middle-aged and obese people can lose weight by eating more Chinese cabbage.
The 10 benefits of Chinese cabbage
1. Weight loss and bodybuilding
For female friends, Chinese cabbage has a good slimming effect. Because of the nutritional value of Chinese cabbage, Chinese cabbage has a good effect on weight loss and bodybuilding.
2. Enhance immunity
Chinese cabbage is one of the most abundant vegetables in vitamins and minerals. It provides material conditions to ensure the body’s physiological needs and helps strengthen the body’s immunity.
3. Keep blood vessels elastic
Chinese cabbage contains a lot of crude fiber. After it enters the human body and combines with fat, it can prevent the formation of plasma cholesterol and promote the excretion of cholesterol metabolite bile acid from the body to reduce the formation of atherosclerosis, thereby maintaining blood vessel elasticity.
4. Moisturize the skin and delay aging
Chinese cabbage contains a lot of carotenes than beans, tomatoes, melons, and is rich in vitamin C. After entering the human body, it can promote skin cell metabolism, prevent skin roughness and pigmentation, make skin bright and clean, and delay aging.
5. Treat acne
Chinese cabbage also has a good therapeutic effect on acne. It is said that Turkish women have white and tender skin and rarely develop skin diseases such as pimples. This is because they often use Chinese cabbage leaves to stick to their faces.
6. Anti-cancer and anti-cancer
The vitamin C contained in Chinese cabbage forms a “hyaluronic acid inhibitor” in the body. This substance has anti-cancer effects and can make cancer cells lose their vitality. In addition, crude fiber can promote the peristalsis of the large intestine, increase the excretion of toxins in the large intestine, and achieve the purpose of anti-cancer and anti-cancer.
7. Promote digestion
It is worth mentioning that Chinese cabbage is rich in cellulose. In the past, it was regarded as waste, but in fact, it plays a very important role in the human body. Because it can prolong the chewing time of food, clean the mouth, exercise teeth, promote the secretion of digestive juice, and have a direct effect on the digestion and absorption of food.
8. Clear lungs and resolve phlegm
Chinese cabbage also has the effect of moisturizing and clearing the lungs. Therefore, patients with a cough caused by lung heat should eat more cabbage to moisturize the lungs and clear the lungs, so that the symptoms of cough will be appropriately alleviated. In winter, respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia are more common. In the season, both adults and children should be prevented in advance.
9. Help flush out toxins
Chinese cabbage also has the effects of clearing away heat, detoxifying, diuresis, and quenching thirst. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that Chinese cabbage has a sweet taste. People who eat Chinese cabbage regularly can prevent scurvy, and can also treat and prevent colds. Chinese cabbage can be used not only as an ingredient but also as a medicine. Taking it, Chinese cabbage can also treat frostbite, which is a kind of magical food.
10. Fight constipation
For the elderly with high blood pressure, it is very important to keep the bowel movement smooth, and Chinese cabbage contains more crude fiber, which can quench thirst, diuresis, and moisturize the bowel. Many people like to eat Chinese cabbage leaves because Chinese cabbage has more crude fiber content.