Basil(Ocimum basilicum) is a plant of the genus Lamiaceae, Lamiaceae, and Ocimum. It is an aromatic plant for medicine and food. It tastes like fennel, the whole plant is small, the leaves are green, the flowers are bright, and the fragrance is overflowing.
Basil is a translation of Indian Sanskrit, but because of its special taste, it is not very popular. On the contrary, after the Dutch were introduced to Taiwan, the special flavor suits Taiwan’s preference, and the climate is suitable for planting and is widely popularized.
Native to tropical Asia, it is very sensitive to cold and grows best in hot and dry environments.
It has a strong, pungent, and fragrant smell. The most common species are sparsely pilose. The botanical characteristics of the same species, varieties, or varieties are slightly different. The height is 20-80 cm. It is a smooth or basically smooth upright annual herb. Plants, some are perennials.
Some are pruned to become beautiful bonsai, which can be potted for viewing.
It has the functions of dispersing wind and promoting qi, dispelling dampness, eliminating food, promoting blood circulation, and detoxification. It is used for the treatment of headache, flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea, irregular menstruation, bruises, snake and insect bites, skin eczema, rash, and itching.
The appearance characteristics of basil
Basil has a conical taproot and dense fibrous roots growing from it. The stem is erect, blunt quadrangular, the upper part is microgroove, the base is glabrous, and the upper part is puberulent, green, often dyed red and many branches.
The leaves are ovoid to ovoid-oblong, 2.5 to 5 cm long, 1 to 2.5 cm wide, apex slightly obtuse or sharply pointed, and attenuated at base;
Irregular teeth or nearly entire edges, nearly hairless on both sides, glandular points on the lower face, 3 to 4 pairs of lateral veins, and the midveins are more or less flat on the upper side and on the lower side;
The petiole is elongated, about 1.5 cm long, nearly flat, slightly narrowly winged toward the base of the leaf, and puberulent.
Racemes are terminally born on stems and branches. Each part is puberulent, usually 10-20 cm long. It is composed of many six-flowered alternately opposed ring cymes. The lower ring cymes are far away and can reach each other. 2 cm, the upper ring cyme is close;
The bracts are small, oblanceolate, 5-8 mm long, shorter than the inflorescences of whorls, apex acute, attenuated at the base, sessile, ciliated at the edges, often with color.
The peduncle is obvious, the flower is about 3 mm long, and the fruit is elongated, about 5 mm long, and the apex is obviously bent down.
The calyx is bell-shaped, 4 mm long and 3.5 mm wide, pubescent on the outside and sparsely pilose at the throat on the inside;
The calyx tube is about 2 mm long, calyx teeth 5, two-lipped, upper lip 3 teeth, middle teeth are the widest, 2 mm long, 3 mm wide;
Surround, concave, with short pointed head, margin extending down to the calyx tube, lateral teeth wide oval, 1.5 mm long, apex acute, lower lip 2 teeth, lanceolate, 2 mm long, with prickly pointed head, The edges of the teeth are all ciliate, the calyx persists in fruit, obviously enlarged, up to 8 mm long, 6 mm wide, obviously down-dip, and the veining is obvious.
The corolla is lavender, or the upper lip is white and the lower lip is purplish red, extending out the calyx, about 6 mm long, puberulent on the outside, glabrous inside, hidden in the crown tube, about 3 mm long, with a somewhat enlarged throat;
Crown eaves two-lipped, wide upper lip, 3 mm long, 4.5 mm wide, 4-lobed, lobes nearly equal, nearly round, often undulate, lower lip oblong, 3 mm long, 1.2 mm wide, downwardly inclined, Entire, nearly flat.
Stamens 4, separated, slightly beyond the corolla, inserted in the middle of the corolla tube, filaments filiform, with dentate appendages to the base of the filaments, puberulent on the base, and anthers ovoid, converging into 1 chamber.
Style extends above stamens, the apex is equally 2-lobed. The faceplate is flat-topped, with 4 teeth, and the teeth do not extend beyond the ovary.
The nutlet is ovoid, 2.5 mm long, 1 mm wide, dark brown, with glandular pits, and a white navel at the base. The flowering period is usually from July to September, and the fruiting period is from September to December.
Main varieties of basil
There are many varieties and varieties of basil plants, such as variegated basil, clove basil, Czech basil, and German sweet basil.
It is an annual herb that feeds on young stems and leaves in the genus Ocimum. It is dwarf and is the most widely cultivated. It is also common in our country. It forms compact plant clusters. The plant height is 25-30cm, the leaves are bright green, and the length is 2.5-2.7. cm, the flower is white, the flower stem is longer, and there are more layers.
The plant height and other characteristics are the same, except that the stems are dark purple to brown, the flowers are purple, and the leaves have purple spots.
Terminal panicle, white corolla. Clove basil is a raw material plant for extracting eugenol. It is used to prepare perfume, toilet water, canned food and preservatives, and spices, and is used as a dental disinfectant.
The planting plants of this product are relatively short, dense, and branching stronger than Sweet basil. The leaves are small, the flowers are white, and the seeds are no different from other varieties.
Green bush basil
This plant is green and more suitable for planting in flower pots. Because of its fresh and bright emerald green and special aromatic smell, it is very popular with people. The flowers are mostly clustered. The whole plant grows on the ground. The number of flowers is large and the formation is small. The color of the flower clusters ranges from rose to white, which is in sharp contrast with the dark green color of the leaves. They are mostly used as gardening plants.
Compact bush basil
The most obvious feature of this variety is that it can form a large number of branches. The whole plant is very dense, with a dense, emerald green spherical plant body. It is more suitable for ornamental plants than ordinary bush basil. It can be planted in pots or placed In a vase, it is an excellent green herb gardening plant.
Lemon Basil (O.b.var.citriodorum)
It is annual, with white flowers, green leaves, and lemon scent. It is generally used for sauces and chicken.
Holy basil (O.cimum sanctum)
The base is lignified, the flowers are white or pink, the leaves are hairy, and the edge of the leaves have teeth, with a spicy flavor.
The stems and leaves are dark purple-red, the leaves are folded up along the midrib, and the leaves are curled and wrinkled. It is generally used to make wine tonic and has an aphrodisiac effect.
Purple Opal basil (PurpleOpal basil)
The flowers are pink, the stems and leaves are dark purples, and the leaves have a lilac smell. Generally used for food (basic raw material for making green sauce) and for processing and refining essential oils.
Fennel Basil (Anise)
The stem is black, the veins are purple, the leaves are green, oval to oval, with the smell of fennel.
Morpha Basil (Morpha)
The stems are purple and the leaves are green, with the flavor of mixed spices. Generally used as a condiment for Malaysian and Indian dishes.
Cinnamon Basil (Cinnamon)
Also known as cinnamon basil, the stem is purple and the leaves are green, the leaf surface is smooth, and the fragrance of cinnamon bark.
Crumpled basil (O.b.var.crispum)
Also called lettuce basil. The leaves are huge, green, and folds on the surface. Generally used for food, the flower head can be used to extract essential oils.
The leaves of this species are large, curly, wavy, 5-10 cm long, short-grown, and densely bloomed. The flowering period is slightly later than other varieties.
Shrub basil (Ocimum basilicum var. minimum)
Also called Greek basil. The plant is round and compact, with small leaves and oval, with a strong smell of spicy cloves.
The chemical composition of basil
Basil contains 0.02~0.04% volatile oil, specific gravity (15℃) 0.900~0.930, refractive index (20℃) 1.4800~1.4950, optical rotation (20℃) -6°~20°;
The main ingredients are ocimene, α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, geraniol, limonene, 3-carene, methyl piperonal, eugenol, eugenol methyl ether, Anisole, methyl cinnamate, 3-Hexen-1-ol, 3-octane, and furfural, etc., the sterilization rate of pure basil essential oil is 99%.
It is mainly used as a flavoring raw material to prepare cosmetics, soaps, and edible flavors. It is also used as a flavoring agent in toothpaste and mouthwash.
The main value of basil
The basil leaves are oval and pointed, and the flowers are purple-white. The leaves and flowers can be distilled to obtain a transparent and colorless essential oil. The fragrance is very similar to a combination of lilac and pine needles.
It is a huge family. Different kinds of basil are named for their characteristic or unique aroma. Many studies of basil focus on the extraction and composition analysis of spices.
It is mainly used in Italian, French, and Greek cuisine, and is often used in Eastern Indian and Thai cuisine.
Basil is generally cultivated as a vegetable in China, and it has a lot of room for development as a new type of special vegetable.
Basil has a special fragrance characteristic (generally speaking, it emits a clove-like fragrance but also has a slight mint flavor, a little sweet or a little spicy, and the fragrance varies with the variety).
The young leaves are edible, and can also be used to make tea. It has the effects of driving wind, aroma, stomach, and sweating.
It can be used as a seasoning for pizza, pasta sauce, sausage, soup, tomato juice, drenching sauce, and salad. Many Italian chefs often use basil instead of pizza herbs.
It is also a commonly used seasoning in Thai cooking. Dry basil can be combined with 3 tablespoons of lavender, mint, marjoram, and lemon verbena to make decompression herbal tea.
Basil is very suitable for pairing with tomatoes, whether it is cooking, soup or sauce, the flavor is very unique.
It can be used as pizza, spaghetti sauce, sausage, soup, tomato juice, drenching juice. And the salad dressing.
Basil can also be mixed with oregano, thyme, and sage to add to hot dogs, sausages, sauces, or pizza sauce for a very rich taste.
Basil essential oil is extracted from leaves and flower heads and is a colorless essential oil.
The smell is refreshing and it has a strong stimulating effect on the nervous system. Use it immediately when you are tired, and it is effective for lack of concentration, long-term mental loss, listlessness, and doubts;
Help increase memory. Very sweet and slightly spicy.
To restore the weakened mind, use Basil 20:1 base oil for full body massage, which can quickly restore the weakened mind and spirit.
Pure essential oil incense: Conducive to concentration, such as concentrating students.
Drop it on the handkerchief and spread the face to breathe, which can quickly eliminate headaches, especially those caused by depression.
Paired with lemon balm, it is a famous “happy combination”.
When paired with geranium, it has the same fragrance and curative effect of the warm series, which has a very powerful care effect and has a miraculous effect on the injured body and mind.
Paired with orange blossom, it is the best formula for physical and mental assistance and care.
It has a moisturizing effect on dry, aging, rough, and wrinkled skin. It can also be used for dark circles and bags under the eyes that often work overtime and face the computer for a long time. Firms skin and balances oil secretion. But overdose will make the skin too tight or irritate the skin.
The whole herb is used as medicine to treat headache, migraine, earache, sinusitis, bronchitis, phlegm, cold, asthma, hiccups, flatulence, stomach pain, stomach cramps, flatulence, indigestion, enteritis, diarrhea, hyperuricemia, Muscle soreness, soft skin, chest pain, bruises, bruises, rheumatoid arthritis, pediatric fever, nephritis, snake bites, decoction to wash eczema and dermatitis, pimples, acne, epilepsy of sheep, irregular menstruation, milk Less secretion, breast congestion, and inflammation, stimulate emotions, reduce stress, relieve depression, aphrodisiac, tonic, antibacterial, insect bites. It has the effects of relieving heat, detoxification, relieving pain, and invigorating the stomach, replenishing essence, and strengthening the blood.
The stems and leaves are used in obstetrics, which can make the blood flow well before delivery; the seeds are named Guangmingzi, and they are used for contraception.