How to grow radishes:Planting for tips

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How to grow radishesPlanting for tips
How to grow radishesPlanting for tips

Among our favorite vegetable crops in the garden, radishes are relatively rare. However, there are many cultivated forms of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) that have been successfully grown around the world.

Among them, the familiar ones – Black Spanish Radish, Cherry Belle Radish, Chinese Green Luobo Radish, Green Meat Radish, Malaga Radish, and Oil Radish – are the main ones. Why radish is grown and what are the characteristics of its agronomy, we will tell in the article.


DO YOU NEED TO PLANT RADISHES IN THE VEGETABLE GARDEN?

Our gardeners have unduly deprived the radish of their attention. In ancient Greece, it was considered the queen of vegetables and was widely grown in its northern possessions. In China, turnips have been grown as one of the main vegetable crops since ancient times. Today, in various countries, radishes and their varieties are again receiving considerable attention. And with good reason.

The roots of the radish in garden form all contain vitamins, macromolecules and trace elements, essential oils, fiber, amino acids, more than 6% of sugar, and 2.5% of protein. All parts of the vegetable are rich in lysozyme, which has a strong bactericidal effect.

Radish is used in medicine to treat cough, gastritis, liver and gallbladder diseases, indigestion, and other diseases. Radish juice is an excellent wound healing agent. The essential oil is obtained from the seeds and is used in industry and cosmetics and other economic areas.


WHAT RADISHES CAN BE GROWN IN SEEDBEDS

Black Radish

Compared to other varieties of radish, it is the most common in the CIS countries. Biennial crop, in the first year, forms a root mass of 200 to 350 g, and in the second year – seeds. Late maturing crop. Sown in late summer and early autumn. Root crops of technical maturity are harvested within a month.

The root of black radish is covered with black skin, the flesh inside is white, slightly bitter, and has a pungent taste due to the high content of mustard oil. It is used fresh and processed in the diet. At home, radish juice with honey is used for bronchial diseases, loss of voice (singer), indigestion, arthritis. Black radish is used for long-term storage.


Radish(Lobo)

Lobo is also called Chinese radish Lobo. root crops are round, cylindrical, or elongated long. The color of the roots can be light or dark green, pink, lilac, and other colors or shades.

The distinguishing feature of this radish from other varieties is the dark green color of the upper part of the root. Its flesh is white to pink. The flavor is not sharp, reminiscent of radish, and can be classified as neutral, which allows Solanine to be used as a food for liver disease. It promotes the rapid healing of septic wounds and the removal of toxins and salts from the body.

The best variety for growing: “Red Heart” (inside – like watermelon, on top – green, without bitterness, wonderfully stored all winter).


Malaga Radish

One variety of Malaga Radish can be described as green radish. At home, gardeners sometimes call the green radish “Malaga”. Its homeland is Uzbekistan, where it is as widespread as the dark green in American regions.

It has a delicate, pleasant flavor with no apparent bitterness or sharpness. The root crop is oblong, less often round. The skin is two-toned: white from the roots, it turns light green at the head. Root crops have other shades.

Characterized by high mineral salts, cellulose, and sugar content. Has a high nutritional value. Indispensable in dietary nutrition.


Daikon radish

Daikon radish (Japanese radish) is increasingly recognized by gardeners. It is valued for its excellent taste quality, high yield, and simple cultivation. The root is long and cylindrical in shape. The skin is white, the flesh is juicy and sweet with a slight bitterness. It tastes like radish.

There are many varieties and hybrids of radish with different maturity periods – from a few days (immediate use) to several months (no loss of flavor). Not only the roots but also the young leaves and seeds are used as food. Garlic is used in the preparation of main dishes, adding it to salads and soups.


Garden radish

Radish is the most popular crop among all types or varieties of radish sown. Fast maturing varieties provide the earliest vitamin vegetables.

Compared to other radish varieties, radishes are small, ranging from 1inch (2.5 cm) to 1.6-2inch (4-5 cm). The shape of the rootstock ranges from round to elongated, similar to carrots. The epidermis of the rhizomes is delicate, predominantly red in color, and varying in the shade. The flesh varies from soft and crisp to dense, with a distinctly spicy flavor.

For long-term storage (up to 4 months in the cellar or basement), plant late varieties. The rest are used fresh immediately after harvesting.

In the framework of the article, it is not possible to list all varieties of sown radishes. We have mentioned the most common vegetable cultivars, which have high-quality indicators.

In addition to the varieties of radishes used in a vegetable garden, gardeners grow everywhere oil radishes, which are inedible for humans, but very necessary on the farm.


Oil Radish

Oil radish does not form an edible root crop and is used by gardeners as a fodder plant or sedge. The crop is drought tolerant, tolerates temporary low temperatures, and can be cultivated in clay soils.

In a short period of time, the plants form a mass in the ground up to 5-6.5 feet (1.5-2 m) in height with a strong root system. The roots penetrate deep into the soil and act as a good loosening agent while being rich in trace elements during decomposition.

The rapid growth of above-ground clumps inhibits weed development and the root system suppresses soil nematodes. Good bees. The seeds contain a high percentage of vegetable oil for pharmacological, cosmetic, and even culinary purposes.

What radishes can be grown in seedbeds
What radishes can be grown in seedbeds

RADISH CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES

Radish varieties belong to the group of vegetables that are propagated mainly by sowing in open or closed fields, and in some areas under temporary sheds.

Propagation through seedlings is still only experimental and the evaluation of this issue is different. Therefore, this paper will discuss the propagation of radish through proper care at sowing, protection against pests and diseases, harvesting, and storage.


Garden radish

Radish is the most popular crop among all types or varieties of radish sown. Fast maturing varieties provide the earliest vitamin vegetables.

Compared to other radish varieties, radishes are small, ranging from 1inch (2.5 cm) to 1.6-2inch (4-5 cm). The shape of the rootstock ranges from round to elongated, similar to carrots. The epidermis of the rhizomes is delicate, predominantly red in color, and varying in the shade. The flesh varies from soft and crisp to dense, with a distinctly spicy flavor.

For long-term storage (up to 4 months in the cellar or basement), plant late varieties. The rest are used fresh immediately after harvesting.

In the framework of the article, it is not possible to list all varieties of sown radishes. We have mentioned the most common vegetable cultivars, which have high-quality indicators.

In addition to the varieties of radishes used in a vegetable garden, gardeners grow everywhere oil radishes, which are inedible for humans, but very necessary on the farm.


Oil Radish

Oil radish does not form an edible root crop and is used by gardeners as a fodder plant or sedge. The crop is drought tolerant, tolerates temporary low temperatures, and can be cultivated in clay soils.

In a short period of time, the plants form a mass in the ground up to 5-6.5 feet (1.5-2 m) in height with a strong root system. The roots penetrate deep into the soil and act as a good loosening agent while being rich in trace elements during decomposition.

The rapid growth of above-ground clumps inhibits weed development and the root system suppresses soil nematodes. Good bees. The seeds contain a high percentage of vegetable oil for pharmacological, cosmetic, and even culinary purposes.


RADISH CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES

Radish varieties belong to the group of vegetables that are propagated mainly by sowing in open or closed fields, and in some areas under temporary sheds.

Propagation through seedlings is still only experimental and the evaluation of this issue is different. Therefore, this paper will discuss the propagation of radish through proper care at sowing, protection against pests and diseases, harvesting, and storage.

The agronomic growing techniques for any variety of radish are very similar. The differences are mainly in the timing of sowing and the quality of the root crop and seeds.

To grow a good quality crop of radish root crops, it is necessary to meet the agronomic requirements of cultivation, which include.

  1. timely sowing in open fields, greenhouses, and under temporary cover.
  2. choosing a variety suitable for the conditions of the region (zoned varieties)
  3. Determining the purpose of the variety or hybrid (summer consumption, storage terms).

WHEN TO SOW RADISH

All radish varieties are short-day plants and should have less than 12 hours of light. With longer light hours, the plants quickly pass through the light phase of development and bloom by mid-summer. In this case, root crops become coarse and even lignified, which is unfavorable for consumption.

Therefore, for good yields of root crops, it is better to sow radishes in the second half of summer, when sunlight hours start to decrease. early varieties that form root tillers in 1-2 months can be sown in early spring when light hours are short enough (e.g. radishes).

Each variety of radish can be divided into 3 groups of varieties according to the time of occurrence of technical maturity of root crops: early-ripening, medium-ripening, and late-ripening.

Early-maturing varieties are sown in the southern zone from the first half of March to the middle of April (depending on weather conditions). Early-maturing varieties in the central belt, near Moscow and in the north are sown in the first and second half of April (undercover) and are ready for harvest in the third half of May-early June.

For 1.5-2 months the so-called “flowering” (i.e. flowering of the plant, which leads to a decrease in the quality of the fruit) does not come. Harvest has time to form, but low. The weight of root crops is within 230-300 g. Harvesting of root crops at technical maturity takes place in 40-45-50 days.

The average time of sowing of mature varieties is from late April to early May in the southern regions and early June in the northern regions. Root crops can be harvested in 70-90-100 days. In the case of medium maturing varieties intended for storage, it is best to sow in late July-early August in the south and in late June in the north.

Late maturing varieties (also called winter seeds) are sown in late July-early August, depending on the region. Root crops are harvested in 90-120 days (late October), always before the onset of permafrost.

Radishes ready for winter storage are best sown in early July and harvested four months later (before frost).

In northern areas, direct sowing in the open field is advisable for medium- and late-maturing varieties.


PLANTING LOCATION

Radishes are sunny crops and if planted in the shade, yields will be drastically reduced. They are frost resistant and can tolerate temperature drops from 28°F (-2°C) (after seedlings are sown) to 19°F (-7°C) (fully developed plants).

Radish is comfortable in open, ventilated areas. It can be grown separately from garlic and onion crops in vegetable and compacted beds, with the same requirements for growing conditions, watering, protection measures, and feeding.

The best soil for radish is loam and sandy loam with neutral or slightly acidic reaction. Radishes do not tolerate standing water, so elevated areas are preferred.


SOIL PREPARATION

If radishes are grown in rotation, the best predecessors are a nightshade, zucchini, pattypan, cucumber, garlic, and peas.

When sowing in spring, prepare the soil from autumn. When sowing the soil for the second time in summer (depending on the previous cultivation), you can leave the soil unfertilized and simply dig 25-35 cm deep depending on the size and shape of the root crop (round, such as radish, black radish or long cylindrical, such as cabbage) and apply manure.

Manure deteriorates the quality of the root crop, so apply fresh organic matter under the previous crop and directly under the radish – humus, mature biological humus at the rate of 0.3 buckets per 1 m² area.

If the soil fertility is high, it is limited to the introduction of medium doses of complete minerals (nitro-ammonia-phosphorus-potassium, nitro-phosphoric acid) or phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (potassium sulfate) to 20-30 g/m2 area, under digging 0.5 cups of wood ash.


SEED PREPARATION

Seeds almost always have a high germination rate. If self-harvested, seeds should be calibrated and disinfected with pink manganese solution before sowing. You can soak the seeds before sowing, but not necessarily. The seeds you buy usually do not require any additional preparation.


RADISH SOWING

On a cloudy day with no wind, sow the seeds in rows in a pre-marked furrow. The distance between rows is 8-10-12inch (20-25-30 cm) depending on the variety and 5-6inch (12-15 cm) between rows. The furrows must necessarily be sufficiently wet (but not flooded with water).

The seeds are embedded no more than 1.2inch (3 cm) deep. Put 2-4 seeds in the hole to germinate and leave the strongest seedlings. Radishes do not tolerate overgrowth, so thin the seedlings 1-2 times more during the growing season. The soil under the radish should be constantly moistened and coated with ash powder, which will prevent the seedlings from being attacked by cruciferous fleas.


RADISH CARE

To obtain a good quality root crop, keep the moisture high from sowing until 2 weeks after sprouting, then switch to watering (but not too much, once a week). To keep moisture in the soil longer, cover the bed with foil before germination. After that, cover the soil with peat or mature humus after watering.

The first thinning is done 7-9 days after germination, a second thinning is done as the plants grow, and a third thinning is done if necessary. If the root crop is crowded, it will appear small and crooked.

It is very important to loosen and weed the soil in a timely manner. It should be remembered that irrigating compacted soil delays the normal development of the root crop.


RADISH FERTILIZATION

During the growing season, radishes should be fed twice:.

  1. The first time at the cotyledon stage; prepare a solution of “Kemira” or ammonium nitrate at a rate of 20 grams per 10 liters of water and treat an area of 3-4 square meters with them.
  2. The second feeding at the 3-4 leaf stage; 30 g of ammonium nitro phosphate, Alamos per 1 m2 of the area; the second feeding can also include wood ash.

Feeding should be stopped 3 weeks before harvesting.


PROTECTION OF RADISH FROM PESTS AND DISEASES

The main insect pests of radish are cruciferous fleas, cabbage whiteflies, stem and root nematodes, cabbage aphids, cabbage leaf beetles, nematodes, moths, and slugs.

The safest way to control pests is to use biological insecticides (strictly as recommended). Biological agents are harmless to human health, animals, and birds.

From nematodes can be used “avermectin“, “bittersweet” and other successful elimination of pests.

Folk remedies can be used to control leaf-eating pests, aphids, fleas infusion of potato gourd, tomato stem decoction, or chamomile infusion. Pollination of plants with tobacco powder or celandine powder can prevent fleas.

The most common diseases affecting radish are pseudomelanosis, powdery mildew, downy mildew, blackleg, vascular fungus, cabbage mosaic, red and white rot, Kira, and some other diseases.


HARVESTING AND STORAGE OF RADISH

Harvesting and storage of radish
Harvesting and storage of radish

Radishes are gently swept up, shaken off the ground, and cut off the gourds, leaving 1.6-2inch (4-5cm) at the base. This method helps retain moisture in the root crop. Sort harvested root crops carefully and gently.

Select roots for storage in a dry, well-ventilated place in the shade and transfer them to a permanent storage site. Radishes do not lose their usefulness and healing properties during storage. For long-term storage use, only varieties marked “for storage”.

The storage period of early varieties of radishes does not exceed 7-20 days. They are used immediately in food. It can be simply stored in open containers for 5-7 days. It is convenient to store in polyethylene bags at a temperature of 35-37°F (2-3°C) and 95-97% humidity in the cellar and basement, in the refrigerator.

Medium maturing varieties are usually placed in cellars and other cool rooms at 30-35°F (-1°C to 2°C) and no more than 95% humidity. Root crops are placed in thick cardboard boxes with holes in the top and sides, or in small wooden boxes interspersed with slightly moist sand in layers of 2-3inch (5-8 cm). Shelf life is 1-3 months.

Winter storage is long and most resistant to late varieties. Root crops are stored in bulk or crates in cellars, vegetable plots, and other specially prepared sites at 26-35°F (-3 to 2°C) and 82-87% humidity. If properly prepared, the storage period can be up to 200 days.


Title: How to grow radishes:Planting for tips
Source: ThumbGarden
Link: https://www.thumbgarden.com/how-to-grow-radishes/
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