To welcome the summer and help the plants develop a good harvest, it is necessary to make the necessary preparations during the winter.
- check the garden pharmacy and buy the missing mineral fertilizers, including compound fertilizers with trace elements additives.
- separate additives of microelements, which are not yet traditional in vegetable production – iodine and boric acid, drinking soda; for fertilizers, natural yeast, some biological preparations are needed; from the fall, you should prepare stocks of ash from burning wood waste and other organic debris.
You should also review the layout of vegetable crops in the rotation of vegetable garden crops. Identify those crops whose stages and application times coincide (e.g., the germination stage in the first 10 days of May and the germination stage in the second 10 days of June).
All the preparation will free up summertime to spend directly on the implementation of the planned work, whose timing is best planned for weekends (so that there is an opportunity to “catch up slowly”). This article describes when and how to fertilizer is related to fertilization issues.
MAJOR FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS – FALL AND SPRING
You usually apply major fertilizer doses and types in the fall or are divided into fall and pre-sowing/spring prep. But these nutrients may not be enough for plants, especially those that form a lot of biomass and yield. To not deplete the soil by turning it white over time, nutrients must be returned to the soil. And this must be in the form of organic matter, which certain soil microbial communities can break down into a chelated salt form that can be used by plants.
TYPES OF NUTRIENTS DURING THE GROWING SEASON
During the growing season, foliar and root nutrients are primarily used. Root applications usually use a water-soluble compound fertilizer in solid or dissolved form, while foliar applications – only working solutions are used.
When using liquid fertilizers for root application, the solution must be washed off the plant to prevent the burning of the above-ground parts. Root fertilization is done in the first half of the summer until the rows and row spacing are closed, then switch to foliar application to green plants only.
Foliar fertilization is done throughout the growing season.
TYPE OF FERTILIZER
During fertilization, plants should be provided with the nutrients they need most at certain stages of growth. The best fertilizers are ammonium nitrate, potassium sulfate, potassium nitrate, double calcium superphosphate, urea, and micronutrients.
Currently, the production of mineral fertilizers is balanced with the needs of certain crops. Tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, peas contain potassium, molybdenum, magnesium, boron for production in root crops, vegetables, etc.
WHAT CROPS SHOULD I NOT FERTILIZE?
When preparing for summer, it is important to clarify which fertilizers will be applied (root application, foliar application), at which stage, and a general list of fertilizer mixes.
Fertilizers should not be applied to vegetable and fruit or spice crops during the summer season. Basic fertilizer applications (radish, leek, dill, parsley, and others) are sufficient.
FERTILIZATION STAGES FOR OUTDOOR CROPS
Traditionally, root nourishment is carried out in the following stages
- On the 10th-12th day of mass germination of sown vegetable crops.
- 2 weeks after sowing of seedling crops grown in open fields
- At the germination stage – early flowering.
- After flowering.
- At the oviposition stage.
- At multiple harvests (cucumber, tomato, bell pepper, eggplant) – after the next fruit harvest.
Foliar spraying is usually done 5 to 6 days after root spraying.
Emergency foliar sprays are applied when the crop is visibly hungry, which is determined by the condition of the above-ground parts, especially the leaves.
The best application times are before 10 a.m. and after 3 p.m.
The recommended fertilizer application system for crop groups is aimed primarily at beginning growers. Experienced growers often have their own ideas about the timing and method of fertilizer application.
TRADITIONAL FERTILIZATION SYSTEM
Apply ammonia at a rate of 8-12 g per 40inch (1 m) extension during the stage of heavy germination of vegetable crops. Fertilizer is applied in the middle of the row spacing and covered with a layer of soil, followed by irrigation. If soil fertility is poor, it is more practical to apply nitroglycerin at the same rate.
Open vegetable crops are first applied at a rate of 10-15 g of nitrobenzoin per 40inch (1 m) extension, followed by watering and mulching.
During the next stages of plant development, fertilizer is applied according to the planned stages. Vegetable crops require the most nutrients during the germination stage, the growth of above-ground parts, and the fruit growth stage. During these periods, feeding is mandatory and includes foliar sprays. The following is a list of summer foliar sprays by crop group.
Summer feeding of pumpkin plants
Cucumbers, zucchini, potatoes, and squash are first fertilized with a dry nitrogenous fertilizer or nitro phosphate fertilizer at the stage of 3-4 leaf spread, about 2-3 grams per bush for cucumbers and 3-4 grams for the rest of the pumpkins. Diammonium hydrogen phosphate can be diluted. Dissolve 25-30 g of fertilizer in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water and apply 0.4-0.5 Gal (1.5-2 liters) per 11 square feet of soil to the roots with a watering can.
The second fertilizer application should be made during the germination period, preferably with a straw ash application between the rows or with a solution of organic matter. If the soil is 70-80% covered with green blocks of plants, infuse 2 cups of grass ash in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water for 2 days and water with a watering can without nozzle, trying to get under the bushes. You can add ideal or other micronutrient preparations to the ash infusion. If organic fertilizer is available, dilute 1.1 Lb (0.5 kg) of manure or chicken manure in 2.5 Gal (10 L) of water and leave it for 1-2 days, watering at the roots. After fertilizing, make sure to wash the manure off the leaves.
After flowering at the stage of heavy ovary growth, pumpkin plants are fertilized with nitroglycerin, a mixture of urea and potash, using potassium sulfate. Apply 6-10 grams of fertilizer per 11 square feet. Foliar applications with micronutrient solutions can be made 4-6 days after each root application, according to the recommendations for solution preparation.
Fertilization of eggplants
Tomatoes, bell peppers, and eggplants should be fertilized with nitrate or other compound fertilizers at all stages during the period from May to June. During this period, foliar sprays must be made with Kemira solution preparations with added boric acid. Fertilization with slurry or chicken manure dissolved in 2-2.5 Gal (8-10 liters) and 3-4 Gal (12-15 liters) of water, respectively, produces good results.
More recently, unconventional solutions with benefits for nightshade have appeared in the recommendations. Dissolve 30 drops of iodine, one teaspoon of anhydrous boric acid, and one dessert spoon of anhydrous baking soda in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water. One tablespoon of ammonium nitrate may be added. Stir the mixture thoroughly and treat the plants. Starting in July, fertilize nightshade with a phosphorus-potassium fertilizer (dry fertilizer), placed between the rows at 30-40 g/extended 40inch (1 meter) or 40-60 g/11 square feet. Fertilizing with natural yeast solution – 100 g per 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water – is effective. The best way to fertilize plants is with 0.25-0.4 Gal (1-1.5 liters) of yeast solution.
Fertilization of potatoes
Potatoes do not like fresh organic fertilizers and need phosphorus and especially potassium fertilizers most during the growing season and during crop formation.
All necessary fertilizers should be applied directly to potatoes starting in autumn or before planting tubers. The best fertilizer is Kemira, but if not available, nitrocellulose can be applied before planting. The application rate at planting is 60-80 g per 11 square feet. If fertilizer is applied directly during planting, the rate is 15-20 g per hole. Fertilizer is mixed with soil in the hole. 3-4 weeks later, fertilize with nitrocellulose at a rate of 30-40 g/11 sq. ft. The next fertilizer application should be made at the tuber growth stage.
Fertilization of legumes
Vegetable peas, beans, and chickpeas are crops that consume large amounts of nutrients per unit of a crop formation. Therefore, they are usually fertilized with complete fertilizers (nitro fertilizers, other compound fertilizers) during 15-20 days of the whole vegetative period. The preparation “Giant” has a good effect on this group of plants.
Leguminous plants need sufficient amounts of potassium in the soil, which is used by the crop to deliver nutrients to the forming crop. It can be mixed with potassium sulfate as a foliar spray (1-2 spoons per bucket of water). After flowering, you can also apply foliar fertilizer with straw ash or straw ash binder.
Fertilization of Cruciferous
Cabbage, cauliflower, and other types of cabbage need increased amounts of nutrients from the head formation stage.
Early-stage cabbage does not require any fertilizer. Mid- and late-stage cabbage is fertilized with nitrocellulose added with trace elements 10-15 days after planting in the open ground. Dilute 3-4 tablespoons of fertilizer in 2.5 Gal (10 liters) of water and pour over the root zone along the contours of the plant. This was followed by watering and mulching. The second is best done with animal or plant organic matter at the stage of beginning to curl cabbage, but only if 20-30 g of calcium superphosphate is added to a solution of cow or poultry manure per bucket.
The organic matter is diluted in the ratio of 1 part of manure to 10-15 parts of water. Every 3-4 weeks, 2 additional foliar sprays of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer should be applied using water-soluble calcium superphosphate and 20-25 grams of potassium sulfate per bucket of water. The easiest way to fertilize cabbage is to use Kemira Universal, Crystalline, or Crystalline. In addition to the basic elements, these fertilizers contain boron, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and magnesium, which are essential for the formation of complete cabbage.
HOW CAN YOU KNOW WHAT A PLANT IS LACKING?
Sometimes the nutrients that have been given do not improve the plant’s condition. In this case, the crop may be deficient in micronutrients. It is easy to determine this by looking at the condition of the leaves.
- Manganese deficiency will show up as yellowing of the leaf edges from old to young leaves.
- Iron deficiency, on the other hand, will cause the leaves to turn yellow between the veins; the discoloration starts from the young leaves and gradually spreads from the top of the young leaves to the older leaves in the stem of the plant.
- General leaf chlorosis (unnatural light green color of the leaf surface) indicates nitrogen deficiency.
- Magnesium deficiency can be easily recognized by the yellowing of the edges of the flakes with a reddish-purple tinge; gradually, the leaves become spotted and fall off.
- Phosphorus deficiency is manifested as a bronze color on the leaves and potassium deficiency as a purple-blue color; the plant begins to lag behind other healthy shrubs of the corresponding crop.
- Zinc deficiency inhibits the development of stems; the internodes of the shrubs are not developed and become a “rosette.”
- Lack of calcium causes the death of growing points; sometimes, it persists, but the ovaries fall off.
- Loss of chlorosis can also be observed in boron deficiency.
Once you have determined from the plant’s appearance that it is deficient in a certain element, it is best to contact the nearest laboratory and have the soil and plant analyzed. If this is not possible, treat 1-2 plants with a trace element solution and monitor the plants’ response. If these signs disappear, it means that this specific micronutrient is missing.
Prepare the solution according to the recommendations and spray it on the plants or apply it under the roots. Remember that disturbances in the ratio of various elements in fertilizers can also lead to disturbances in their delivery to the plant. For this reason, it is better to use ready-to-use multi-nutrient fertilizers than to make your own complex fertilizer mixtures.
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