Almost every Dacha has a greenhouse or hotbed. They are mainly used to extend the consumption period of fresh vegetables and green crops in the owner’s menu or to raise young plants.
A greenhouse is a special world where plants, insects, and soil systems interact closely. A limited list of crops to grow removes the same nutrients from the soil, depleting and upsetting the optimal balance of nutrients in a short period of time.
Regular sowing of nettles in the greenhouse helps to avoid this problem. What seeds to sow in the greenhouse and when to sow them will be told in this material.
WHY DO GREENHOUSE PLANTS NEED TO BE SOWN IN A GREENHOUSE?
Plant cultivation in greenhouses gradually destroys the fertility and structure of the soil. After several years of continuous use, the fertile soil turns into poor mineralized soil.
Negative microflora of fungi, microorganisms, viruses, and other diseases that affect greenhouse crops accumulate in a confined space. Yields drop dramatically.
Of course, there are ways to solve the problem of infertile soil and reduce infections and other negative effects with negative microflora.
The most well-known and used by shed owners are the following methods – introduction of manure, replacement of soil (completely or partially), disinfection of the interior space, and soil of the shed.
But they are labor-intensive, require time and effort, and affect the household budget in one way or another.
In the natural environment, the plants themselves help themselves without human involvement, enriching the soil with the organic matter due to the decomposition of above- and below-ground materials, creating a favorable environment for beneficial microflora and destroying pathogens.
What to do if enclosed spaces are necessary to obtain fresh vegetables and green leaves? What measures will bring positive results, reducing labor and time to do the job of caring for the soil and plants in greenhouses and greenhouses?
Nature itself suggests a way out. In order to create a cycle of ecosystems in confined spaces, recently there has been increasing use of greenhouse technology, which allows enriching greenhouse soil with organic substances in a relatively short time, improving the structure, quality, and fertility of the soil.
Green manure plants are annual and fast-growing plants. Within 2-4 weeks, large green patches and developed epidermal root systems are formed at 12-16 inches (30-40 cm) in the upper layer of the soil.
The strong root system of young plants “works” as a soil biological plow. The developing root system loosens the soil and improves access to water and oxygen.
The sediment is actually organic fertilizer, returning to the soil in rapid decomposition of basic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium), trace elements, without the cost and money for their purchase and application.
It is a green manure culture because of its biological properties, which quickly saturate the soil with humus – the main component of soil fertility, creating a favorable environment for beneficial microorganisms, worms, etc.
And the most important thing: after Saratov, the soil does not need to be re-tilled. green manure already does this procedure for you.
The soil after them is aired, saturated with oxygen and nutrients, the plants can use the form, it is sterilized and practically no additional anti-infection treatment is needed.
Naturally, within 1 year of using Sidel, there will be no such global changes, but after 3-4 years you will be sure that they are more effective than shovels.
WHICH GRASS SEEDLINGS ARE SUITABLE FOR SOWING IN THE GREENHOUSE?
There are about 400 annual herbaceous plants that can be used as green manure, both in the open ground and in the greenhouse.
In practice, gardeners use about 20 crops to achieve the following results.
- For loosening the soil.
- For mulching.
- To improve fertility.
- Soil disinfection.
- For pest control.
Vegetable crops in greenhouses can be sown all year round, but there are some rules that can be followed to improve their effectiveness.
- Plants belonging to the same family as the main greenhouse crop should not be used as by-products.
- Arachis should be pruned before germination, otherwise, they will become common weeds.
The table shows the useful properties of green manure plants and their compatibility with the main plants (Table 1).
Using the materials in the table allows choosing the best combination of main crops and nettles, which will reduce soil acidity, increase natural fertility, disinfect the soil and eliminate pests.
Table 1: Characteristics of the most common nettle species in the greenhouse
|Mustard, spring and winter rape, okra, oil radish||Weeds and pathogens are suppressed, loosening the soil well, eliminating iron nematodes and slugs, and enriching with phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and organic matter. Oil radish also destroys root rot and nematodes. Nematodes that settle under the rape flowers. If the soil is infested, it is best to sow a mixture of oilseed rape and mustard. The mixture will stop the nematodes from multiplying.||Tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, parsnips, dill|
|Oats, rye, barley, annual ryegrass, wheat, wheatgrass||Increases organic matter content, soil moisture permeability, nitrogen, and potassium content, and kills nematodes. Oats and rye cleanse the soil of fungi and infections, including phylloxera. Under rye, the iron nematode settles. To drive it out, it is best to mix this glycoside with mustard and bitter greens.||Tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini.|
|Buckwheat||Reduces acidity and increases phosphorus and potassium content. Recommended for heavy soils.||Under all greenhouse crops|
|Vetch, peas, beans, lupins, clover, alfalfa, lentils||Increases the organic matter and nitrogen content of the upper layers of the soil. They loosen the soil very well. Peas protect the soil from nematodes and pathogens and remove insoluble phosphates.||Tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, zucchini, radishes|
|Fabaceae||The universal use of green manure before the effective development of any vegetable crop. Growing Phacelia on 1 hectare of land can replace 300 kg of manure.||All types of vegetable crops grown under greenhouse conditions|
Stationary crops can be sown individually or in a mixture. The mixture of green manure should contain the maximum amount of grain seeds (50-60% of the total weight).
They enrich the soil with potassium in the process of decomposition. Such crops should contain approximately equal shares (10-15% each) of vetch, white mustard, and fenugreek.
Vetch increases the nitrogen content and white mustard increases the phosphorus content, in addition, it effectively sterilizes the soil against pathogenic microorganisms (phytophthora).
Fagus is good at suppressing weeds introduced early into the greenhouse, destroying pathogenic microorganisms, and helping to deoxygenate the soil. Rapeseed (5%) is added to the mixture to add green quality. Like phacelia, canola destroys harmful microorganisms.
In the greenhouse, it is impossible to observe crop rotation in order to return to the same place no earlier than 3-5 years, but you can successfully calculate the rotation of green manure, gradually restoring the soil, saturating it with the necessary elements, organic matter, purifying it and successfully growing the necessary crops in this context.
If the greenhouse consists of two beds, you can comply with the following schedule of glycoside use (Table 2).
Over a period of 5 years, a mixture of nettle of 5 components will pass through the beds, which will help the main plants to develop in good conditions and free the horticulturist from a series of heavy manual work.
Table 2. Rotation schedule for green manure (approx.)
|Year||Maincrop||Mixed or single green manure (sown after harvest of main crops)|
|1||Radish, carrot, parsnip, herbs (dill, parsley, etc.)||Clover, spring yellow chrysanthemum, mustard, winter rape|
|2||Peas, beans, cucumbers||Buckwheat, mustard, phacelia, oats, vetch.|
|3||Any plant of the Solanaceae family, including tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant||Lupine, melilot, alfalfa. respectively – mustard, oats, barley.|
|4||Zucchini, cucumber, brussels sprouts, carrots||Mustard, oil radish, acacia. Can be replaced by an oatmeal mixture.|
|5||Bok choy (lettuce), peas, tomatoes at different stages of ripeness.||Vetch, rape, oats or buckwheat, farro oats, suet. It is possible to repeat the mixture of the first year.|
Some hosts plant mustard under the main crop during the last month of growth and development (e.g. tomatoes in August).
When the main crop bears its last fruits, the mustard keeps the phylloxera (which is usually greedy at this point) under control, purifies the soil, and prepares it to be cut and turned into humus. And next spring (see Table 2), you can sow vetch with oats.
AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES FOR CULTIVATING DENDROBIUM IN GREENHOUSES
Sowing time in greenhouses
Sowing in greenhouses can be done in early spring (late February, March) using cold-resistant and fast-growing crops (vetch, squash, fenugreek, oilseed rape, mustard, oil radish, oats, rye).
The most cold-tolerant green manure plants are vetch and rape, which can be sown at 23°F (-5°C) and 17°F (-8°C), respectively. The same crops can also be sown in summer (June and July).
In autumn, i.e. September, it is better to sow rye, oats, oilseed rape, fenugreek, and vetch.
Selection of sown green manure
- With a liner.
The first sowing method is to sow or plant the main crop after sowing green manure.
With the second method, the main crop (seedlings) is planted between the rows of green manure. They can be planted directly in the holes formed by the green manure planting.
When the pots grow to 4-6inch (10-15 cm) they are cut off and left as mulch on the bed.
In the third case, the bed is divided into rows where the main crop is planted, while in the middle rows, as mulch, green manure is planted.
The main crop is planted after 2-3 weeks, which is related to its decomposition.
Sowing green manure in spring
When sowing green manure in the spring, snow is thrown into the greenhouse beforehand or otherwise saturates the soil with moisture. The seeds are randomly scattered on moist soil and gently embedded in the soil.
If sowing rape or seedlings between the intended rows, it is best to loosen the upper layer of soil by 2-2.7inch (5-7 cm)), make a furrow, sow grass seedlings, cover them with soil, and water them with warm water.
On the 3rd-7th day, sprouts of green manure crops appear. It is necessary to keep the soil moist throughout the process before mowing green manure, which will accelerate the emergence of seedlings and the rapid accumulation of green mass plants.
When the above-ground part of the green manure is 6-12inch (15-30 cm) in height (before the emergence of flower buds), cut it down and embed it in the topsoil with a fukin flat knife or a small trowel.
For better decomposition, water the soil systematically, but do not allow any stagnation of water. 2-3 weeks later, you can plant/sow the main crop between the rows of green manure.
Sowing green manure in autumn
Sowing green manure in autumn is the most effective, especially if greenhouses are not used in winter.
After harvest, sow the greenhouse in sequential sowing of greenhouse beds, embedding the seeds in the upper 0.4-1.2inch (1-3cm) of soil, and watering. If the fall is very warm, the sativa will have time to form a root system and frost will not damage the plants.
If you miss the planting time, you should sow frost-resistant crops such as vetch, rape, rye, and oats. Mustard and radish are no longer suitable. Sowing in the fall has its advantages.
Green manure “works” for the main cultures all winter. The root system loosens the soil and the green matter is processed into humus material. In spring, the plugs can be used as mulch so that the main crops can be planted earlier.
Rye and oats are not buried in the soil when they are cut. The greens decompose on the soil surface while acting as mulch.
DO I NEED TO CONSIDER FERTILIZATION?
This question is certainly an interesting and timely one. Foliar sprays of mineral fertilizers are needed for the first few years. Ash is effective and provides additional micro and macro elements for the main crop.
You can make nitroglycerin or Kemira in minimum quantities before the flowering of the main culture, not more than 5 grams per bush of aubergines, squash, and 5-10 grams per run of rice in the form of an aqueous solution of radishes, carrots, salads, and other small cultures.
To accelerate the germination of cider plants in large quantities, after their sowing, the soil can be treated with biological preparations “microbial fertilizers of double effect”. These preparations promote the multiplication of useful and effective microorganisms, which destroy the pathogenic microflora.
They help arachis to clean and disinfect the soil, develop a large root system, leave microchannels during decay, and contribute to enriching the soil with oxygen.
These agents can be sprayed during the growing season to protect plants from fungal and bacterial diseases. Together, green manure and biological agents will ensure a bumper crop of vegetables and other horticultural crops without the use of chemicals.
Have you found the answer to your burning question? What else would you like to know about the side effects of greenhouses? Share your approaches to nutrient enrichment and decontamination of greenhouse soils in the comments of the article or in our forum.