Zamioculcas is a genus of flowering plants of the family Araceae, containing the single species Zamioculcas zamiifolia, a tropical perennial native to eastern Africa from southern Kenya to northeastern South Africa. Common names include Zanzibar gem, ZZ plant, Zuzu plant, aroid palm, eternity plant and emerald palm. depending on the origin, the genus includes one to four species.
The plant is named Zamiaceae because its leaves are very similar to zamia (family Zamiaceae), which grows in the American continent. It is grown as an ornamental plant mainly because of its attractive glossy leaves and ease of care.
Dutch nurseries began propagating the plant commercially on a large scale around 1996. It was first described as Caladium zamiifolium by Loddiges in 1829, moved to his new genus Zamioculcas by Heinrich Wilhelm Schott, and given its established name Zamioculcas zamiifolia by Adolf Engler.
PLANTING CHARACTERISTICS OF ZAMIOCULCAS
Zamioculcas is a low-growing herb. Its rhizome is tuberous, and its roots are thick and fleshy. The thick and succulent rhizome is essential for the flower because it can store water in it. The plant’s roots are rhizomes, which makes the plant drought tolerant and allows the plant to be in a drought condition for a long time later. Therefore, the plant should watering when it is dry to avoid overwatering. They need good drainage and can live in moderate to indirect sunlight.
Lack of sunlight can be indicated by the leaves becoming longer. The palpable leathery texture of the feathers is quite dense. The leaves can reach a length of about 40 inches (1 meter). During prolonged periods of drought, the plant will defoliate from the upper part of the leaves to reduce evaporation, while the lower part of the petiole is needed to store water for the shrub. The underground tubers also store water. A well-grown shrub can also start flowering when grown at home. A short, thick peduncle emerges from the underside of the leaves and bears a light cream-colored peduncle.
BRIEF INSTRUCTIONS FOR ZAMIOCULCAS
- Flowering. Zamioculcas is grown as an ornamental deciduous plant.
- Lighting. Zamioculcas needs a lot of bright sunlight.
- Temperature. 71-77 °F (22-25°C) in spring and summer and about 60 °F (16°C) in winter.
- Watering. In spring and summer, water plants as soon as the top substrate layer in the pot become dry. In late fall and spring, reduce watering if the flowers are kept in a cool place over the winter. Water only when the soil in the pot is completely dry.
- Humidity. Zamioculcas grows well at typical air humidity levels in residential areas. However, on hot days, its leaves should be regularly moistened with warm water from a sprayer.
- Fertilizer. From the latter part of spring until the end of summer, feed the shrub every 15 days, using fertilizer from succulents and cacti. The rest of the time, the plant does not need any fertilizer.
- Dormant period. From the last few weeks of fall to the beginning of spring.
- Transplanting. Only when necessary, usually every 2 to 4 years. Treat in spring or summer.
- Soil. A suitable substrate should consist of sand, garden soil, and forest soil (5:2:2:2). Should be added a small amount of charcoal for soil mixture.
- Propagation. Zamioculcas by leaf plug and rhizome division.
- Pests. Scabies and aphids.
- Diseases. Improper care may result in black spots on the leaves, the leaves may fall off, shoots may be severely elongated, or rots may form on the roots and stems.
HOME CARE FOR ZAMIOCULCAS
Zamioculcas tolerates direct sunlight so that it can be planted in a south-facing window. However, if there is a lack of fresh air in the middle of the day, it is recommended to shade the plant in summer. It also grows well in wet- or east-facing light windowsills. Newly purchased flowers should be gradually accustomed to direct sunlight. Otherwise, their leaves will get sunburned. This should also be done after a long period of cloudy weather.
In spring, summer, and autumn, the plant needs to be warm at 71-77 °F (22-25°C). It can be placed in a cooler place in the winter, about 60 °F (16 °C). Ventilate the room where the plant is located systematically.
From spring to late fall, water Zamioculcas only when the potting soil is half dry. At other times, watering should be sparing and precise. The same watering regime is needed during long rainy days. If the temperature in the room is lower than required, moisten only after the substrate has completely dried out. In prolonged drought, the upper part of the leaves will dry out.
Water the plants with soft, well-drained water (at least 24 hours). Make sure that the liquid does not stagnate in the root system throughout the year.
Zamioculcas grew as a house plant grows well in low air humidity, which is characteristic of living rooms. Therefore, there is no need to humidify the foliage. However, in the hot summer months, it is recommended to regularly wipe the leaves with a moist sponge or spray them with warm water from a sprayer.
Only well-developed plants should bloom as houseplants. On a short flower stalk, it produces an inflorescence covered by a light green terminal leaf.
Fertilize with cactus or succulent fertilizer every 2 weeks from the latter part of spring until fall. The rest of the year, do not fertilize if the weather is overcast.
Once the shrub is grown, the large leaves will need to be supported by stanchions with rings. If not, the leaves will start to droop.
Transplanting Zamioculcas plants
Repotting is only recommended in the spring or summer when it is necessary. It is usually done every 2 to 4 years. Infrequent repotting will slow down the growth rate. A tall clay pot should be used. If the pot is too wide, the root system will develop for the first time and the growth of the above-ground parts will be severely hampered. Pots that are too large also tend to stagnate the liquid in the potting soil. The following potting soil should be used: sand, garden soil, and forest soil (5:2:2). A small amount of charcoal can also be added to the potting soil. Make sure to provide a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot so that it occupies at least 1/4 of the pot.
This plant can be propagated by dividing and rotting leaves and leaf plates. A mini-greenhouse filled with a mixture of peat and sand is used for rooting, and the air temperature should be above 68 °F (20 °C).
Leaves that have been shed can form nodules at the base. These can be used for propagation and will eventually develop roots and shoots. If development is normal, the first stems may start after 6 months.
DISEASES AND PESTS
If not properly cared for, Zamioculcas can develop problems as follows.
- Leaf death. If the leaves are physically damaged, this can cause them to die. too little sunlight will cause plants to stretch.
- Falling leaves. This is a natural process if the underside of the leaves wilts and falls off.
- Leaf spot disease. Dark spots can form on the leaves, caused by drafts, over-watering, and cold air.
- Rot on the bush. If the room is too cold and there is often standing water in the substrate, rots may appear on the roots and shoots.
- Harmful insects. This plant is very resistant to pests but may be infested with scabies or aphids.
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