It is not a secret that many gandener use some medicines for planting. It seems glance so peculiar, but some gardeners view them with almost hostile intent.
Manganese is a well-known antiseptic used in medicine and veterinary medicine. In crop production, Manganese solution is used not only as a preservative but also as a fertilizer.
In this article, we will show you, by example, how to use Manganese properly in your garden and vegetable garden.
WHAT IS MANGANESE?
Domestic Manganese is the potassium salt of Manganese acid, with the chemical formula KMnO₄. A second, more common chemical name for the substance is potassium permanganate.
Industrially, Manganese is extracted from Manganese ore and the salt is obtained by chemical or electrochemical oxidation or Manganese compounds.
In appearance, Manganese is a beautiful dark purple or almost black crystal with limited solubility in water.
HOW TO PREPARE A 1% SOLUTION OF MANGANESE?
In order to obtain a 1% solution of Manganese, you need to dilute 1 gram of the substance in 100 ml of water. In order to obtain a 2% solution, respectively, 2 grams. However, as a rule, gardeners are “predicted by eye” to make this solution. This, perhaps, is not very accurate, but there is no need to buy a super accurate scale.
A standard teaspoon is used for this purpose. If you fill it with Manganese crystals without the top (carefully remove the top with the blade of a knife), it can hold 6 grams of the substance. After diluting this amount of high Manganese acid potassium in 600 ml of water, we get a 1% solution of Manganese.
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MANGANESE
Oxidizing Manganese refers to a strong oxidizing agent. It is soluble in water, ammonia, methanol, pyridine, acetone. Depending on the pH of the solution, it can oxidize different substances and be reduced to Manganese salts with different degrees of oxidation in the reaction.
The oxidizing properties of Manganese provide antiseptic and anti-microbial action. This compound (from the “harmless” chemical group) started to be used by gardeners as a disinfectant and micronutrient for the fertilization of vegetable and horticultural gardens and berry patches.
Be careful with Manganese! Wear gloves when handling the crystals. If the crystals get on your skin, they can cause dermatitis. Be careful not to allow dust particles to enter your respiratory tract. This may cause a cough or headache.
USING MANGANESE SOLUTION WHEN GROWING PLANTS
Manganese is indispensable from early spring to late autumn. It is used for soil disinfection, as a fertilizer, helps to destroy and prevent fungal diseases in seed dressings, and protects plants from diseases.
Introduction of Manganese into the soil as a fertilizer
It is well known that mineral fertilizers are the basis for improving the effective fertility of the soil. Plants need Manganese for redox processes, respiration, and photosynthesis.
In case of lack of Manganese in the soil, Manganese fertilizer (Manganese slurry, Manganese superphosphate) is applied at a dose of 3-5 g/m2. If there is no fertilizer, you can use Manganese sulfate (manganese sulfate) in the form of 0.03-0.05% solution.
If this fertilizer is not available on the farm, you can use it as a micronutrient by watering the soil in open beds and greenhouses with a 1-3% solution of Manganese. Soil treatment is done 2 weeks before sowing or planting vegetables and plant crops in spring. This method applies fertilizer and disinfects the soil at the same time.
Manganese facilitates the disinfection of the soil against harmful microorganisms, including Fusarium and root rot. For this purpose, under all seedling crops, a solution of 0.2% concentration of 1 liter per hole is applied in each hole before planting.
Preservatives for seed treatment
If you buy seeds in the store, they are already treated at the time of sale. When making your own at home, the seeds are necessarily sterilized or preserved. This treatment is necessary to kill the negative microflora that settles on the surface of the seeds.
For seed dressing, a solution of 0.5-1% is used. Light-colored seeds should be kept in the solution for 15-20 minutes, then washed under running water and dried in the open air. manganese dressing increases the immunity of plants to infectious diseases. You should not overdo it and increase the concentration of the solution. Seeds can be burned by the chemicals and lose their ability to germinate.
Fertilizer for fruit and vegetable crops
Manganese is used as a solution for root and foliar feeding during the vegetative phase (leaf and soil diagnosis) when plants are deficient in Manganese.
Root feeding with solutions at the beginning of the growing season (preferably mixed with fertilizers containing nitrogen) The dose of Manganese solution is 5 g/m2 for vegetables and strawberry/soil crops; 5-10 g/m2 for berry crops and 10-15 g/m2 for fruit trees (fruit).
In the form of root-feeding is also prepared from a mixture of Manganese (3 g) and boric acid (1 g) per 10 liters of water. Spraying of vegetables, berry shrubs, and fruit trees is carried out in spring before flowering and, if necessary (disease control), during fruit set.
Vegetable seedlings are fertilized with Manganese 2 times. The first one is before transplanting to open ground, the second one is 1-2 weeks after planting with a solution of 5 g of Manganese in 10 liters of water in a fixed place.
MANGANESE AS A FUNGICIDE
As a fungicide, a Manganese dioxide solution is applied for spraying to control fungal diseases. It is used to control brown spots, fusarium, chlorosis, brown rust, rot, and other diseases.
It should be remembered that for successful control under different types of plants (vegetables, shrubs, trees, etc.), different concentrations of Manganese solution are prepared.
To prevent spraying of powdery mildew, mucilaginous diseases, and rots of vegetable crops, use 3% Manganese solution for spraying.
If powdery mildew appears on cucumbers, squash, zucchini, melons, spray with 3% Manganese solution every 3 days until the disease is eliminated.
The most common tomato disease is Phytophthora. To prevent this disease, tomatoes are sprayed with a 1-2% solution of Manganese 3 times during the vegetative stage: at the stage of heavy above-ground growth, before heavy flowering, and at the fruit set stage or when the fruit starts to sprout.
Before planting, soak potato tubers and bulbs in Manganese solution for 5 to 8 hours at a rate of 5 grams of powder per 10 liters of water. Some gardeners prepare a more concentrated solution (15 g Manganese per bucket of water) but soak tubers and bulbs for 1-2 hours.
Gray rot on strawberries/cranberries and other herbaceous berries can be well removed by a Manganese solution of 2 teaspoons of topless Manganese per 10 liters of water. Spraying is usually done after flowering.
To control powdery mildew in fruit bushes (currants, gooseberries, grapes), a mixture of Bordeaux containing Manganese (a mixture of copper sulfate, lime, and water) can be used. Add 3 grams of Manganese to 10 liters of Bordeaux’s mixture (mixture of copper sulfate, lime, and water) and spray the plants for disease and prevention in wet and rainy weather.
You can use a mixture of 50 g of potassium nitrate and 3 g of Manganese diluted in 10 liters of water for spraying.
Attention! If you spray vegetables and other crops with grass ash, you should not add Manganese, because grass ash already contains this trace element. Excessive use can frustrate the plants.
PROPER STORAGE OF MANGANESE
Store crystalline oxidized Manganese in a dark glass container in a cool place, away from sunlight. In sunlight, the substance may lose its oxidizing properties.
Due to the possibility of fire or explosion, containers or packages containing Manganese should be kept away from sulfur, phosphorus, glycerin, other oils, and fats, as well as from reactive metals – calcium, aluminum, magnesium, sodium, etc. Manganese is incompatible with sugar, tannin, charcoal.
Its official shelf life is 5 years. The date of purchase and the storage period of the substance should be indicated on the label. If stored improperly, high Manganese acid Manganese loses its antiseptic properties. However, experience shows that under optimal conditions it can be stored for longer.
The main indicator of loss of quality of Manganese crystals or powder is the reddish-brown hue of the solution or precipitate.
Home-made Manganese solutions are stored for no more than 2 days, but it is best to always use freshly prepared ones. Pharmacy solutions in sealed packages have a longer shelf life. In previous years, they were sold in pharmacies and the labels always showed the production and storage dates.
After use, the remaining Manganese solution is poured out and the container is washed with water, without adding any detergent.
Today you can buy Manganese for gardening in stores. however, it has almost disappeared from pharmacies.
In this article, you learned about the properties of Manganese. Conditionally “harmless” chemicals are only helpful for the garden under the conditions of correct dilution and application. Therefore, be careful when working with Manganese solutions.