Vegetable crops have a rather complex response to long daylight hours. The duration and intensity of light have a significant impact on the development and yield of vegetable crops. Vegetable crops can be divided into three categories: long daylight hours, short daylight hours, and neutral daylight hours. You will learn about The sunshine time Implication on vegetable growth in the ThumbGarden article.
Vegetable Crops with Long Sunlight Duration
The list of these crops is quite extensive. This includes all types of cabbage, celery, spinach, sorrel, parsnips, dill, onions, lettuce, radishes, turnips, carrots, rutabaga, vegetable peas, and table beets.
For flowering and fruiting, these crops require more than 13 hours of long daylight hours. When the days are short, only plant organs such as roots, shoots, and leaves are growing. With longer daylight hours, these plants begin to form reproductive organs such as flowering stems and form fruits and seeds.
Therefore, it is important to follow the recommended spring planting dates for these crops. Delayed planting, known as late sowing, can result in a premature start of the stem stage (bud formation), leading to a reduction in yield or total loss of the crop.
Long-day vegetable crops can also be successfully sown in the second half of July. With this type of sowing, vegetables such as radishes, lettuce, broccoli, kohlrabi, and green onions do not bloom and produce high yields when the long daylight hours are naturally shortened.
Important Information to Know – Vegetable Growth
Breeders create varieties and hybrids based on the response of each crop to sunlight. In addition, varieties and hybrids have been created for some crops that respond to sunlight. In the case of onions, for example, there are long-sun, short-sun and neutral varieties. Therefore, by sowing the right varieties according to the recommendations, it is possible to significantly increase the yield.
Vegetable Crops with Short Sunshine Hours
These crops include corn, beans, sweet and hot peppers, squash, zucchini, eggplant, and passion fruit. The short daylight hours do not exceed 12 hours of daylight. These plants need this day in the initial stages of vegetation, but after that, they thrive in long daylight hours. If the recommended sowing times are observed, the plants will flower, produce fruit sooner and yield more.
Vegetable Crops That Remain Neutral to Daylight Hours
This group includes watermelon, asparagus, some bean varieties, tomatoes, and cucumbers – all of which were bred in the temperate and northern latitudes of the country. This type of vegetable grows well on both long and short days. When sowing seeds, the growing season must be taken into account so that the plants have time to form a complete and high-quality crop.
An important result of the work of breeders in California has been the development of malleable vegetable crop varieties and hybrids that can grow and produce crops under different lengths of daylight.
The radish varieties “Red Radish”, “Carmen” and “Carmelita Hybrid” can be sown from early spring to late fall. They do not even flower in the summer but produce beautiful root vegetables.
For the earliest sowing, ‘Duro, Lyubava, Korund, Sora’ are the best. When the weather is warm, they can be sown from the end of April. The maturity period is 18-20 days. These are very high-yielding varieties, up to 5 kg/1 m2.
The “Octave” variety sown in August is in the best condition. It will take longer, about 40 days, but it will give you very tasty rhizomes without bitterness or hollowness. It can be stored in the refrigerator for 2-3 months.