How do peanut seeds germinate

Harvest peanuts - peanut seeds
Harvest peanuts – peanut seeds

What is the process of peanut seed germination? How many days does it take for peanuts to sprout?
How long does it take for peanuts to germinate? How many days do peanut seeds germinate and grow leaves?
The following article is introduced for everyone, for the reference of netizens.

Peanut seed germination process

From sowing to 50% of the seedlings of peanuts, the first true leaf is the seed germination stage.
Usually, seeds that have completed dormancy and have the ability to germinate can germinate under suitable environmental conditions.

Under normal circumstances, peanut seeds need to absorb 40%-50% of the moisture of the air-dried seeds before they can germinate.
The water absorption speed of peanut seeds is related to temperature. When the water temperature is 30°C, it can absorb enough water for germination in 3 to 5 hours, and it takes more than 6 hours at 15°C.

While the seeds are swelling, the activity of various enzymes in the seeds is strengthened, the respiration rises sharply, and the storage materials such as fat in the cotyledons are transformed into simple soluble substances under the action of enzymes;
And move to the radicle, hypocotyl, embryo, re-synthesis or consumption in breathing, at the same time the radicle, hypocotyl, embryo volume increase, the radicle and hypocotyl grow and elongate, when the radicle breaks through the seed coat, Germinate when the 3 mm white tip is exposed.

After the seed germinates, the radicle rapidly grows down to form the main root, and quickly grows lateral roots. By the time of seedling emergence, the main root has reached 20 to 30 cm, and there are more than 30 lateral roots.

When the top of the cotyledon breaks the soil and the sprout sees light, the hypocotyl stops elongating, the seed coat is broken, and the cotyledons open. When the first true leaf stretches out of the ground and unfolds, it is called emergence.
When peanuts emerge, the cotyledons are generally not unearthed. Under the condition of shallow sowing or loose soil, part of the cotyledons can be exposed, so peanuts are called semi-unearthed crops.

The hypocotyls of peanuts are strong, and the topsoil ability is strong during germination, but if the seeding is too deep or the covering is too thick, the hypocotyls cannot push the cotyledons to the soil surface;
In this way, because the growth of the first pair of lateral branches from the cotyledon node is hindered, the yield is affected. This is the reason why the “clear tree” technology is used in production to increase production.

In this period, under normal conditions, it takes 10-15 days to sow early-maturing seeds in spring, 12-18 days for mid-late-maturing seeds, and 4-10 days for summer or autumn sowing.

Peanut seeds growth process
Peanut seeds growth process

Peanut germination conditions

1.Temperature conditions

Different types of peanut varieties require different temperatures for germination and emergence. The minimum temperature required for germination is 12°C for pearl bean and multi-grain peanuts, and 15°C for common peanuts.
In general, the germination speed of seeds increases with the increase of temperature, and the germination rate increases.

The most suitable temperature for peanut seed germination is 25~37℃, lower than 10℃ or higher than 46℃, some varieties cannot germinate.
Cultivation Help recommends that the average ground temperature of the seeding layer of 5 cm for spring sowing peanuts: early-maturing varieties above 12 ℃, mid-late-maturing varieties above 15 ℃.

2.Moisture requirements

Peanut seeds absorb water about 4 times the weight of the seeds from germination to emergence.
When sowing, the relative humidity of the soil (that is, the soil water content is the percentage of the maximum water holding capacity in the field) should be 60% to 70%. When the relative humidity of the soil drops to 40%, peanuts are prone to drying out.

When the relative humidity of the soil is higher than 70%, due to insufficient oxygen, seed respiration is inhibited, the germination rate of peanuts is reduced, and even the seeds are rotten.

3.Oxygen requirements

Under suitable temperature and moisture conditions, when peanut seeds germinate and germinate, their respiratory metabolism is strong, and a large amount of oxygen is needed to promote the conversion of fat into sugars and ensure the normal growth of seedlings.
According to measurements, the oxygen demand of each peanut seed was 5.2 ml on the first day and increased to 615 ml on the eighth day.

Therefore, excessive soil moisture, soil compaction or too deep seeding, and insufficient oxygen supply often cause weak growth of seedlings, slow emergence, and even rotten seeds, affecting the whole seedlings and strong seedlings.

The above is the introduction to the peanut seed germination characteristics and germination conditions. If you have better suggestions, please leave a message below to let us know.

Title: How do peanut seeds germinate
Source: ThumbGarden
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