There are many kinds of organic fertilizer, but the most popular is compost. Because this fertilizer is the easiest to obtain and ferment. So many people are using it, so how good is it?
Compost is an organic fertilizer that is rich in nutrients and has a long-lasting and stable fertilizer effect.
At the same time, it can increase soil water retention, heat preservation, ventilation, and fertilizer retention capacity, and can compensate for the single nutrient content of chemical fertilizers.
The use of chemical fertilizers alone can make the soil compact and reduce the defects of water retention and fertilizer retention. Today, this article will talk about common composting and high-temperature composting methods, as follows.
Most local organic fertilizer products are only composted and fermented for 15-20 days. Such products can only meet the harmless standard. The fermentation process of high-quality organic fertilizers generally takes 45-60 days.
This is because, in the warming stage and high-temperature stage of the composting stage, harmful microorganisms such as plant pathogenic bacteria, eggs, weed seeds, etc. will be killed.
However, the main role of microorganisms in this process is metabolism and reproduction, and only a small amount is produced. And these metabolites are unstable and not easily absorbed by plants.
In the later cooling period, the microorganisms will humify organic matter and produce a large number of metabolites that are beneficial to plant growth and absorption. This process takes 45-60 days.
This method of composting can achieve three goals, one is harmless, the other is humus, and the third is a large number of microbial metabolites, such as various antibiotics and protein substances.
Composting method: According to the different raw materials, it is divided into high-temperature compost and ordinary compost.
ordinary composting is in smack conditions to ripen, the temperature of the compost does not exceed 50 ℃, a long decay time, about 3-5 months.
Composting methods vary with the season and other conditions, there are three types of flat, semi-pit, and underground.
Flat ground type
Choose a dry and flat terrain, close to the water source, and convenient for transportation before stacking.
Pile width of 2 meters, pile height of 1.5-2 meters, pile length depends on the number of materials. Before stacking, tamp the ground, then lay a layer of fine grass or charcoal to absorb the seeping sap.
Each layer is 15-24 cm thick, and water, lime, sludge, human waste, and urine are added in appropriate amounts between each layer, and the top of the pile is covered with a layer of fine soil or river mud to reduce the evaporation of water and the loss of ammonia volatilization.
Pile about 1 month, pounding once, and then add water according to the degree of wet and dry compost, and then pile about 1 month, pounding again, until ripe.
The speed of compost maturation varies with the season, with high temperature and humidity in summer, composting once about 2 months, and 3-4 months in winter.
Half pit type
First, choose a porch with a high trough inclined in a sunny leeward place, the depth of the pit is 2-3 feet, the bottom of the pit is 5-6 feet wide and the length of the pit is 8-12 feet.
The bottom of the pit has a well-formed ventilation trough with a trench depth of 5-6 inches, and the ventilation tower for the vent is formed at the intersection of the trench.
The compost pile was raised 3 feet above the ground and 1000 kg of air-dried straw was added. The top of the pile was sealed with mud.
The pile is piled and the temperature rises after one week. After the high-temperature period, the temperature in the reactor drops for 5-7 days.
It can be turned over so that the pile is evenly distributed inside and outside, and then the pile is stacked until it is decomposed.
Deep pit type
The pit is 2 meters deep. All the pits are stacked in the ground. Also called “underground type”. The stacking method is similar to the half-pit type.
High-temperature composting is a kind of organic fertilizer. After the high-temperature treatment of straw and manure, it can eliminate bacteria, eggs, grass, and other harmful substances.
High temperature composting must be inoculated with high-temperature cellulolytic bacteria and ventilation devices must be established. The cold-proof area should also be protected from cold.
There are two types of high-temperature composting methods: flat type and half-pit type.
The composting method is the same as for regular composting, but hot pyro-cellulolytic bacteria must be added to promote the decomposition of the straw.
High temperature composting usually goes through several stages, such as heat generation, high temperature, temperature drop, and decomposition, and can be sterilized by pesticides at high temperatures.
Organic fertilizer should be applied with a water-soluble fertilizer.
Organic fertilizer decomposition speed is slow, low efficiency, so in the application of fertilizer should pay attention to each other, so that they complement each other, a reasonable mix.
Organic fertilizers should be fully rotted.
Most organic fertilizers often carry bacteria, eggs, and weed seeds, so add octinoxate to composted organic fertilizers to kill insects and then apply fungicides.
However, the burning of seeds and seedlings can occur if undecomposed fertilizer is applied directly to the soil. At the same time, organic fertilizer contains a large number of insect eggs and pathogenic bacteria, which can cause serious harm to crops.
During spring, summer, and autumn, the outdoor temperature is kept above 20℃ for composting.
Choose an open site with sunny, slightly elevated terrain, favorable drainage, and convenient transportation.
In short, some skills of organic composting should be explained in detail.
In addition, attention should be paid to the use of organic fertilizers in combination with inorganic fertilizers and biofertilizers to meet the nutritional needs of crops, in the hope of helping farmers’ “friends”.